Inservice training for incorporating environmental education into the industrial/vocational education system at the secondary education level in Taiwan the ROC
The purpose of this study was to develop a sequential procedural steps of inservice training of environmental education for industrial/vocational senior high school teachers in Taiwan R.O.C. The study investigated the attitudes and needs of teachers in terms of inservice training for environmental education. It also investigated teachers' perceptions of content, formats, time preferences, teaching methods, and administrative support for inservice training. The samples of the study consisted of 381 industrial/vocational senior high school teachers in Taiwan R.O.C;Twelve hypotheses were tested at the 0.05 level of significance. Seven revealed significant difference and are listed by geographic area, gender, school level, and school type. There is a significant difference in respondents' perceptions regarding: (1) updating levels of environmental knowledge among teachers living in different areas, or between teachers representing different genders; or between teachers different school level; (2) need for inservice training program content among teachers living in different areas; (3) preference for particular organizations to deliver inservice training to teachers living in different areas; (4) time preferences for inservice training by teachers living in different areas; and (5) administrative support for inservice training between public school teachers and private school teachers;The following recommendations for conducting effective inservice training in environmental education were suggested: (1) either the Environmental Protection Administration Government (EPAG) of the R.O.C. or the Ministry of Education (MOE) conduct a needs assessment before any inservice training; (2) either EPAG or MOE set up additional environmental education centers in central, southern, and eastern Taiwan; (3) five courses be provided first into inservice training: (a) pollution and pollution prevention; (b) humans and natures; (c) choosing, obtaining, using, and evaluating environmental instructional materials and equipment; (d) coordinating and integrating abilities; and (e) problem-solving abilities for pollution prevention; (4) inservice training be provided in summer or winter sessions; (5) training formats be multifaceted; (6) MOE provide schools with sufficient budgets for teacher inservice training; (7) school principals allow teachers more release time for inservice training and support more professional development activities; (8) administrators be trained in environmental education; (9) teachers with a different majors be involved in inservice training in environmental education; and (10) evaluation be conducted after inservice training.