Inversion-based feedforward-feedback control: theory and implementation to high-speed atomic force microscope imaging
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In this dissertation, a suite of inversion-based feedforward-feedback control techniques are developed and applied to achieve high speed AFM imaging. In the last decade, great efforts have been made in developing the inversion-based feedforward control as an effective approach for precision output tracking. Such efforts are facilitated by the fruitful results obtained in the stable-inversion theory, including, mainly, the bounded inverse of nonminimum-phase systems, the preview-based inversion method that quantified the effect of the future desired trajectory on the inverse input, the consideration of the model uncertainties in the system inverse, and the integration of inversion with feedback and iterative control. However, challenges still exist in those inversion-based approaches. For example, although it has been shown that the inversion-based iterative control (IIC) technique can effectively compensate for the vibrational dynamics during the output tracking in the repetitive applications, however, compensating for both the hysteresis effect and the dynamics effect simultaneously using the IIC approach has not been established yet. Moreover, the current design of the inversion-based feedforward feedback two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF) controller is ad-hoc, and the minimization of the model uncertainty effects on the feedforward control has not been addressed. Furthermore, although it is possible to combine system inversion with both iterative learning and feedback control in the so-called current cycle feedback iterative learning control (CCF-ILC) approach, the current controller design is limited to be casual and the use of such CCF-ILC approach for rejecting slowly varying periodic disturbance has not been explored. These challenges, as magnified in applications such as high-speed AFM imaging, motivate the research of this dissertation. Particularly, it is shown that the IIC approach can effectively compensate for both the hysteresis and vibrational dynamics effects of smart actuators. The convergence of the IIC algorithm is investigated by capturing the input-output behavior of piezo actuators with a cascade model consisting of a rate-independent hysteresis at the input followed by the dynamics part of the system. The size of the hysteresis and the vibrational dynamics variations that can be compensated for (by using the IIC method) has been quantified. Secondly, a novel robust-inversion has been developed for single-input-single-output (SISO) LTI systems, which minimized the dynamics uncertainty effect and obtained a guaranteed tracking performance for bounded dynamics uncertainties. Based on the robust-inversion approach, a systematic design of inversion-based two-degree-of-freedom (2DOF)-control was developed. Finally, the robust inversion- based current cycle feedback iterative learning control approach was developed for the rejection of slow varying periodic disturbances. The proposed CCF-ILC controller design utilizes the recently-developed robust-inversion technique to minimize the model uncertainty effect on the feedforward control, as well as to remove the causality constraints in other CCFILC approaches. It is shown that the iterative law converges, and attains a bounded tracking error upon noise and disturbances. In this dissertation, these techniques have been successfully implemented to achieve high-speed AFM imaging of large-size samples. Specifically, it is shown that precision positioning of the probe in the AFM lateral (x-y) scanning can be successfully achieved by using the inversion-based iterative-control (IIC) techniques and robust-inversion based 2DOF control design approach. The AFM imaging speed as well as the sample estimation can be substantially improved by using the CCF-ILC approach for the precision positioning of the probe in the vertical direction.