Development of Thermal Performance Metrics for Direct Gas-Fired Circulating Heaters

dc.contributor.author Ramirez, Brett
dc.contributor.author Smith, Benjamin
dc.contributor.author Ramirez, Brett
dc.contributor.author Hoff, Steven
dc.contributor.author Hoff, Steven
dc.contributor.department Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
dc.date 2021-07-01T18:36:33.000
dc.date.accessioned 2021-08-14T00:16:53Z
dc.date.available 2021-08-14T00:16:53Z
dc.date.copyright Fri Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2021
dc.date.issued 2021-06-24
dc.description.abstract <p>Many climate-controlled agricultural buildings use direct gas-fired circulating heaters (DGFCH) for supplement heat. There is no standardized test to calculate thermal efficiency for these heaters. This study aimed to develop a measurement system and analytical analysis for thermal efficiency, quantify the measurement uncertainty, and assess economics of DGFCH efficiency. The measurement system developed was similar to the ASHRAE 103 standard test stand with adaptations to connect the apparatus to the DGFCH. Two different propane measurement systems were used: input ratings < 30 kW used a mass flow system and input ratings > 30 kW used a volumetric gas meter. Three DGFCHs (21.9, 29.3, 73.3 kW) were tested to evaluate the system. Thermal efficiencies ranged from 92.4% to 100.9%. The resulting uncertainty (coverage factor of 2; ~95% Confidence Interval) ranged from 13.1% to 30.7% for input ratings of 56.3 to 11.4 kW. Key sources of uncertainty were propane and mass flow of air measurement. The economic impact of 1% difference in thermal efficiency ranged from USD $61.3 to $72.0 per heating season. Refinement of the testing system and procedures are needed to reduce the uncertainty. The application of this system will aid building designers in selection of DGFCHs for various applications.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is published as Smith, Benjamin C., Brett C. Ramirez, and Steven J. Hoff. "Development of Thermal Performance Metrics for Direct Gas-Fired Circulating Heaters." <em>Agriculture</em> 11, no. 7 (2021): 588. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11070588" target="_blank">10.3390/agriculture11070588</a>. Posted with permission.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_pubs/1223/
dc.identifier.articleid 2508
dc.identifier.contextkey 23619641
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath abe_eng_pubs/1223
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/dvmqgDev
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_pubs/1223/2021_RamirezBrett_DevelopmentThermal.pdf|||Fri Jan 14 19:16:14 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.3390/agriculture11070588
dc.subject.disciplines Agriculture
dc.subject.disciplines Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering
dc.subject.keywords heating cost
dc.subject.keywords thermal efficiency
dc.subject.keywords uncertainty
dc.title Development of Thermal Performance Metrics for Direct Gas-Fired Circulating Heaters
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
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relation.isAuthorOfPublication 98b46d48-66a2-4458-9b42-8c4aa050664d
relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication 8eb24241-0d92-4baf-ae75-08f716d30801
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