Assessment of Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination and Associated Risk Factors in Feed and Feed Ingredients in Rwanda

dc.contributor.author Nishimwe, Kizito
dc.contributor.author Bowers, Erin
dc.contributor.author de Dieu Ayabagabo, Jean
dc.contributor.author Maier, Dirk
dc.contributor.author Habimana, Richard
dc.contributor.author Mutiga, Samuel
dc.contributor.author Maier, Dirk
dc.contributor.department Food Science and Human Nutrition
dc.contributor.department Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering
dc.date 2021-03-18T07:49:54.000
dc.date.accessioned 2021-04-29T23:07:41Z
dc.date.available 2021-04-29T23:07:41Z
dc.date.copyright Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2019
dc.date.issued 2019-05-14
dc.description.abstract <p>Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites that contaminate crops, food, and animal feeds. Aflatoxins and fumonisins are among the mycotoxins that have been increasingly reported to affect health and productivity of livestock globally. Given that the health and productivity of livestock can directly influence human food safety and security, a study was conducted to assess the levels and factors for aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination in feed and feed ingredients in Rwanda. Aflatoxins and fumonisins were analyzed in 3328 feed and feed ingredient samples collected at six time points between March and October 2017 in all 30 districts of Rwanda. Of the 612 participants providing samples, there were 10 feed processors, 68 feed vendors, 225 dairy farmers, and 309 poultry farmers. Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) was used for aflatoxin and fumonisin analyses. Mean aflatoxin levels of 108.83 µg/kg (Median (MD): 43.65 µg/kg), 103.81µg/kg (MD: 48.4 µg/kg), 88.64 µg/kg (MD: 30.90 µg/kg), and 94.95 µg/kg (MD: 70.45 µg/kg) were determined for dairy farmers, poultry farmers, feed vendors, and feed processors, respectively. Mean fumonisin levels were 1.52 mg/kg (MD: 0.71 mg/kg), 1.21 mg/kg (MD: 0.56 mg/kg), 1.48 mg/kg (MD: 0.76 mg/kg), and 1.03 mg/kg (MD: 0.47 mg/kg) for dairy farmers, poultry farmers, feed vendors, and feed processors, respectively. Aflatoxin contamination was significantly affected by time of sampling and district from which feed samples originated (p < 0.05). Fumonisins did not show any correlation trends. Ninety-two percent of survey participants were unaware of aflatoxins and fumonisins and their adverse effects. This study has provided the basic understanding of the extent of feed contamination across the country and has established a baseline for future interventions in Rwanda. Further studies are needed to explore strategies for mitigating mycotoxins in the feed value chain in Rwanda.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is published as Nishimwe, Kizito, Erin Bowers, Jean de Dieu Ayabagabo, Richard Habimana, Samuel Mutiga, and Dirk Maier. "Assessment of aflatoxin and fumonisin contamination and associated risk factors in feed and feed ingredients in Rwanda." <em>Toxins</em> 11, no. 5 (2019): 270. DOI: <a href="https://doi.org/10.3390/toxins11050270" target="_blank">10.3390/toxins11050270</a>. Posted with permission.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_pubs/1199/
dc.identifier.articleid 2482
dc.identifier.contextkey 22089147
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath abe_eng_pubs/1199
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/104458
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/abe_eng_pubs/1199/2019_MaierDirk_AssessmentAflatoxin.pdf|||Fri Jan 14 19:02:53 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.3390/toxins11050270
dc.subject.disciplines Agriculture
dc.subject.disciplines Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering
dc.subject.disciplines Food Science
dc.subject.keywords aflatoxin
dc.subject.keywords fumonisin
dc.subject.keywords animal feed safety
dc.subject.keywords dairy farmers
dc.subject.keywords poultry farmers
dc.subject.keywords Rwanda
dc.title Assessment of Aflatoxin and Fumonisin Contamination and Associated Risk Factors in Feed and Feed Ingredients in Rwanda
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
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relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication 8eb24241-0d92-4baf-ae75-08f716d30801
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