Repeated Polyploidization of Gossypium Genomes and the Evolution of Spinnable Cotton Fibres

Paterson, Andrew
Wendel, Jonathan
Wendel, Jonathan
Gundlach, Heidrun
Guo, Hui
Jenkins, Jerry
Jin, Dianchuan
Llewellyn, Danny
Showmaker, Kurtis
Shu, Shengqiang
Udall, Joshua
Yoo, Mijeong
Byers, Robert
Chen, Wei
Doron-Faigenboim, Adi
Duke, Mary
Gong, Lei
Grimwood, Jane
Grover, Corrinne
Grupp, Kara
Hu, Guanjing
Lee, Tae-ho
Li, Jingping
Lin, Lifeng
Liu, Tao
Marler, Barry
Page, Justin
Roberts, Alison
Romanel, Elisson
Sanders, William
Szadkowski, Emmanuel
Tan, Xu
Tang, Haibao
Xu, Chunming
Wang, Jinpeng
Wang, Zining
Zhang, Dong
Zhang, Lan
Ashrafi, Hamid
Bedon, Frank
Bowers, John
Brubaker, Curt
Chee, Peng
Das, Sayan
Gingle, Alan
Haigler, Candace
Harker, David
Hoffmann, Lucia
Hovav, Ran
Jones, Donald
Lemke, Cornelia
Mansoor, Shahid
Rahman, Mehboob
Rainville, Lisa
Rambani, Aditi
Reddy, Umesh
Rong, Jun-kang
Saranga, Jehoshua
Scheffler, Brian
Scheffler, Jodi
Stelly, David
Triplett, Barbara
Van Deynze, Allen
Vaslin, Maite
Waghmare, Vijay
Walford, Sally
Wright, Robert
Zaki, Essam
Zhang, Tianzhen
Dennis, Elizabeth
Mayer, Klaus
Peterson, Daniel
Rokhsar, Daniel
Wang, Xiyin
Schmutz, Jeremy
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Ecology, Evolution and Organismal Biology

Polyploidy often confers emergent properties, such as the higher fibre productivity and quality of tetraploid cottons than diploid cottons bred for the same environments1. Here we show that an abrupt five- to sixfold ploidy increase approximately 60 million years (Myr) ago, and allopolyploidy reuniting divergent Gossypium genomes approximately 1–2 Myr ago2, conferred about 30–36-fold duplication of ancestral angiosperm (flowering plant) genes in elite cottons (Gossypium hirsutum and Gossypium barbadense), genetic complexity equalled only by Brassica3 among sequenced angiosperms. Nascent fibre evolution, before allopolyploidy, is elucidated by comparison of spinnable-fibredGossypium herbaceum A and non-spinnable Gossypium longicalyx F genomes to one another and the outgroup D genome of non-spinnable Gossypium raimondii. The sequence of a G. hirsutum AtDt (in which ‘t’ indicates tetraploid) cultivar reveals many non-reciprocal DNA exchanges between subgenomes that may have contributed to phenotypic innovation and/or other emergent properties such as ecological adaptation by polyploids. Most DNA-level novelty in G. hirsutum recombines alleles from the D-genome progenitor native to its New World habitat and the Old World A-genome progenitor in which spinnable fibre evolved. Coordinated expression changes in proximal groups of functionally distinct genes, including a nuclear mitochondrial DNA block, may account for clusters of cotton-fibre quantitative trait loci affecting diverse traits. Opportunities abound for dissecting emergent properties of other polyploids, particularly angiosperms, by comparison to diploid progenitors and outgroups.


This article is from Nature 492 (2012): 423, doi:10.1038/nature11798.