Aqueous Sonogashira coupling of aryl halides with 1-alkynes under mild conditions: use of surfactants in cross-coupling reactions

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2015
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Woo, L.
Lu, Wenya
Woo, L. Keith
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Royal Society of Chemistry
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Woo, L.
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Chemistry
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Chemistry
Abstract
Aqueous Sonogashira coupling between lipophilic terminal alkynes and aryl bromides or iodides gave moderate to high yields at 40 °C using readily available and inexpensive surfactants (2.0 w/v% in water) such as SDS and CTAB. The catalyst precursor was 2 mol% Pd(PPh3)2Cl2, and included a 5 mol% Cu(I) co-catalyst for aryl iodide substrates. Aryl-bromide reagents were found to be inhibited by iodide and Cu(I). Studies under Cu(I)-free conditions reveal two competing pathways. A deprotonation pathway gives rise to the traditional Sonogashira product (3), while a carbopalladation pathway produces enyne, 5. The surfactant solution (SDS or CTAB) can be recycled up to three times for coupling between 1-octyne and 1-iodonapthalene in the presence of CuI before the yields decrease.
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This is a manuscript of an article published as Roberts, Gina M., Wenya Lu, and L. Keith Woo. "Aqueous Sonogashira coupling of aryl halides with 1-alkynes under mild conditions: use of surfactants in cross-coupling reactions." RSC Advances 5, no. 24 (2015): 18960-18971. DOI: 10.1039/C5RA00505A. Copyright 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Posted with permission.
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