Enhancing Brand Loyalty through Brand Experience: Application of Online Flow Theory
Flow, “the state in which people are so involved in an activity” (Csikszentmihalyi, 1991, p. 4), occurs only when formidable challenge is manageable by a person’s skills. Because navigational skill and challenge influence online flow (Novak et al., 2000), experiencing flow during online shopping may be determined by the level of a consumer’s skill and challenge related to the online task. Brand experience refers to cumulative consumer experiences in interacting with brand-related stimuli (Brakus et al., 2009). Considering that a brand’s Website is a brand-related stimulus affecting brand experience, online flow on the brand’s Website is expected to contribute to the consumer’s overall brand experience. Furthermore, brand experience is thought to enhance brand loyalty (Biedenbach & Marell, 2010) or a consumer’s belief in the priority of a brand over other brands and subsequent behavioral intentions (Oliver, 1999).