Apparel shopping behaviors among Korean female tourists
This study was designed to develop profiles of apparel shopping behaviors among Korean female tourists in the U.S. More specifically, the objectives were to (1) inductively generate distinguishable variables for clothing benefits, clothing involvement, and shopping behavior of Korean female tourists, (2) identify clusters of Korean female tourists with common benefits, involvement, and behavior, and (3) examine the profiles for potential differences in travel motivations, tourism activities, travel planning styles, and cultural values.;A self-administered questionnaire was developed based on the results of background interviews and previously existing instruments. The instrument was completed by a convenience sample of Korean women between their 30s and 70s who resided in Seoul and Pusan in Korea and traveled to the U.S. at least one time between 1997 and 2001. Out of 547 questionnaires distributed, a total of 177 questionnaires (32.4%) was used for this study. Factor analysis, cluster analysis, MANOVA, ANOVA, post hoc Scheffe multiple comparison, and Chi-square were used for data analyses.;Four meaningful consumer groups were identified: perfectionist shoppers, low concerned shoppers, economic shoppers, and utilitarian shoppers. Perfectionist shoppers were a recreational, active, and well-planned consumer group. Low concerned shoppers showed limited concern. Economic shoppers focused primarily on price. Utilitarian shoppers were an apathetic consumer group who emphasized functional attributes of clothing. When compared, tourist groups differed on shopping orientation (recreational, loyalty, value, and quality), pre-trip planning, travel activities (shopping), travel motivations (family/friends, luxury/shopping), and cultural values (face, independent self). Tourists' cultural values, clothing-related behaviors, and travel behaviors were interrelated. In contrast, Korean female tourist groups did not differ in terms of age, education, income, occupation, marital status, and residence. The findings from this study provided insights for tourism retailers in the U.S. intending to attract and retain Korean tourist consumers.