Intersexes and Mixed Races: Visuality, Narrative, and ‘Bastard’ Identity in Early Twentieth-Century Germany
1he founding of the German Empire in 1871, and the resulting constellation of intra-European and colonial conflicts, generated a wide range of new concerns about rhe characteristics and determinants of "Germanness." Scholars, politicians, medical authorities, legal professionals, and artists explored and debated standards of inclusion and exclusion as they propagated both intellectual and institutional ways to develop and mainrain standards for what qualified as German. \VolfLepenies argues char rhe result was a tenuous relationship between the newly scare-defined German political sphere and the other fluid means of establishing rhe Germanness of those who inhabited rhe new state. "At rimes, it ... seemed as if the German stare was a stare without politics, rhar is, a state with vassals bur without citizens. Yet it never aimed at being a state wirhour culture."2 Ir rhus often appeared that any self-defined German identity cook a back sear to a range of intellectually
This is a chapter from Representations of German Identity 1 (2013): 103. Posted with permission.