Exploring the Dynamics of Virulent and Avirulent Aphids: A Case for a ‘Within Plant’ Refuge

O'Neal, Matthew
Valmorbida, Ivair
O’Neal, Matthew E.
Parshad, Rana
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© The Author(s) 2021
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The soybean aphid, Aphis glycines (Hemiptera: Aphididae), is an invasive pest that can cause severe yield loss to soybeans in the North Central United States. A tactic to counter this pest is the use of aphid-resistant soybean varieties. However, the frequency of virulent biotypes that can survive on resistant varieties is expected to increase as more farmers use these varieties. Soybean aphids can alter soybean physiology primarily by two mechanisms, feeding facilitation, and the obviation of resistance, favoring subsequent colonization by additional conspecifics. We developed a nonlocal, differential equation population model to explore the dynamics of these biological mechanisms on soybean plants coinfested with virulent and avirulent aphids. We then use demographic parameters from laboratory experiments to perform numerical simulations via the model. We used this model to determine that initial conditions are an important factor in the season-long cooccurrence of both biotypes. The initial population of both biotypes above the resistance threshold or avirulent aphid close to resistance threshold and high virulent aphid population results in coexistence of the aphids throughout the season. These simulations successfully mimicked aphid dynamics observed in the field- and laboratory-based microcosms. The model showed an increase in colonization of virulent aphids increases the likelihood that aphid resistance is suppressed, subsequently increasing the survival of avirulent aphids. This interaction produced an indirect, positive interaction between the biotypes. These results suggest the potential for a ‘within plant’ refuge that could contribute to the sustainable use of aphid-resistant soybeans.
This article is published as Banerjee, Aniket, Ivair Valmorbida, Matthew E. O’Neal, and Rana Parshad. "Exploring the Dynamics of Virulent and Avirulent Aphids: A Case for a ‘Within Plant’Refuge." Journal of economic entomology 115, no. 1 (2022): 279-288. doi: 10.1093/jee/toab218. Posted with permission. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
soybean, biotype, insecticide-resistant management, nonlocal ODE model