Nutrient Excess and AMPK Downregulation in Incubated Skeletal Muscle and Muscle of Glucose Infused Rats
We have previously shown that incubation for 1h with excess glucose or leucine causes insulin resistance in rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle by inhibiting AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). To examine the events that precede and follow these changes, studies were performed in rat EDL incubated with elevated levels of glucose or leucine for 30min-2h. Incubation in high glucose (25mM) or leucine (100μM) significantly diminished AMPK activity by 50% within 30min, with further decreases occurring at 1 and 2h. The initial decrease in activity at 30min coincided with a significant increase in muscle glycogen. The subsequent decreases at 1h were accompanied by phosphorylation of αAMPK at Ser485/491, and at 2h by decreased SIRT1 expression and increased PP2A activity, all of which have previously been shown to diminish AMPK activity. Glucose infusion in vivo, which caused several fold increases in plasma glucose and insulin, produced similar changes but with different timing. Thus, the initial decrease in AMPK activity observed at 3h was associated with changes in Ser485/491phosphorylation and SIRT1 expression and increased PP2A activity was a later event. These findings suggest that both ex vivo and in vivo, multiple factors contribute to fuel-induced decreases in AMPK activity in skeletal muscle and the insulin resistance that accompanies it.
This article is published as Coughlan KA, Balon TW, Valentine RJ, Petrocelli R, Schultz V, Brandon A, Cooney GJ, Kraegen EW, Ruderman NB, Saha AK. Nutrient excess and AMPK Downregulation in incubated skeletal muscle and muscle of glucose infused rats. Plos One. 2015; 10(5): e0127388. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0127388. Posted with permission.