Characterizing the rapid spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) through an animal food manufacturing facility

dc.contributor.author Schumacher, Loni
dc.contributor.author Huss, Anne
dc.contributor.author Ramirez, Alejandro
dc.contributor.author Cochrane, Roger
dc.contributor.author Stark, Charles
dc.contributor.author Woodworth, Jason
dc.contributor.author Bai, Jianfa
dc.contributor.author Poulsen, Elizabeth
dc.contributor.author Chen, Qi
dc.contributor.author Main, Rodger
dc.contributor.author Zhang, Jianqiang
dc.contributor.author Gauger, Phillip
dc.contributor.author Ramirez, Alejandro
dc.contributor.author Derscheid, Rachel
dc.contributor.author Magstadt, Drew
dc.contributor.author Dritz, Steve
dc.contributor.author Jones, Cassandra
dc.contributor.department Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
dc.date 2018-10-09T09:56:31.000
dc.date.accessioned 2020-07-07T05:12:43Z
dc.date.available 2020-07-07T05:12:43Z
dc.date.copyright Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2017
dc.date.issued 2017-11-02
dc.description.abstract <p>New regulatory and consumer demands highlight the importance of animal feed as a part of our national food safety system. Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the first viral pathogen confirmed to be widely transmissible in animal food. Because the potential for viral contamination in animal food is not well characterized, the objectives of this study were to 1) observe the magnitude of virus contamination in an animal food manufacturing facility, and 2) investigate a proposed method, feed sequencing, to decrease virus decontamination on animal food-contact surfaces. A U.S. virulent PEDV isolate was used to inoculate 50 kg swine feed, which was mixed, conveyed, and discharged into bags using pilot-scale feed manufacturing equipment. Surfaces were swabbed and analyzed for the presence of PEDV RNA by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Environmental swabs indicated complete contamination of animal food-contact surfaces (0/40 vs. 48/48, positive baseline samples/total baseline samples, positive subsequent samples/total subsequent samples, respectively; <em>P</em> < 0.05) and near complete contamination of non-animal food-contact surfaces (0/24 vs. 16/18, positive baseline samples/total baseline samples, positive subsequent samples/total subsequent samples, respectively; <em>P</em> < 0.05). Flushing animal food-contact surfaces with low-risk feed is commonly used to reduce cross-contamination in animal feed manufacturing. Thus, four subsequent 50 kg batches of virus-free swine feed were manufactured using the same system to test its impact on decontaminating animal food-contact surfaces. Even after 4 subsequent sequences, animal food-contact surfaces retained viral RNA (28/33 positive samples/total samples), with conveying system being more contaminated than the mixer. A bioassay to test infectivity of dust from animal food-contact surfaces failed to produce infectivity. This study demonstrates the potential widespread viral contamination of surfaces in an animal food manufacturing facility and the difficulty of removing contamination using conventional feed sequencing, which underscores the importance for preventing viruses from entering and contaminating such facilities.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is published as Schumacher, Loni L., Anne R. Huss, Roger A. Cochrane, Charles R. Stark, Jason C. Woodworth, Jianfa Bai, Elizabeth G. Poulsen, Qi Chen, Rodger G. Main, Jianqiang Zhang, Phillip C. Gauger, Alejandro Ramirez, Rachel J. Derscheid, Drew M. Magstadt, Steve S. Dritz, and Cassandra K. Jones. "Characterizing the rapid spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) through an animal food manufacturing facility." <em>PloS ONE</em> 12, no. 11 (2017): e0187309. DOI: <a href="https://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0187309" target="_blank">10.1371/journal.pone.0187309</a>. Posted with permission.</p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/vdpam_pubs/121/
dc.identifier.articleid 1124
dc.identifier.contextkey 12961975
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath vdpam_pubs/121
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/91963
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/vdpam_pubs/121/2017_Ramirez_CharacterizingRapid.pdf|||Fri Jan 14 19:12:59 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.1371/journal.pone.0187309
dc.subject.disciplines Food Microbiology
dc.subject.disciplines Large or Food Animal and Equine Medicine
dc.subject.disciplines Veterinary Infectious Diseases
dc.subject.disciplines Veterinary Preventive Medicine, Epidemiology, and Public Health
dc.subject.keywords Swine
dc.subject.keywords Rubber
dc.subject.keywords Equipment
dc.subject.keywords Mixers
dc.subject.keywords Food
dc.subject.keywords Viral pathogens
dc.subject.keywords Foodborne organisms
dc.subject.keywords Dust
dc.title Characterizing the rapid spread of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) through an animal food manufacturing facility
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
relation.isAuthorOfPublication 37ecb3cd-5b5e-4059-bc70-af2b4ff5fc1e
relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication 5ab07352-4171-4f53-bbd7-ac5d616f7aa8
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