Clinical and Immunomodulating Effects of Ketamine in Horses with Experimental Endotoxemia

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2011-01-01
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Alcott, Cody
Sponseller, Brett
Wong, David
Davis, J. L.
Soliman, A. M.
Wang, Chong
Hsu, Walter
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Statistics
As leaders in statistical research, collaboration, and education, the Department of Statistics at Iowa State University offers students an education like no other. We are committed to our mission of developing and applying statistical methods, and proud of our award-winning students and faculty.
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Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
The mission of VDPAM is to educate current and future food animal veterinarians, population medicine scientists and stakeholders by increasing our understanding of issues that impact the health, productivity and well-being of food and fiber producing animals; developing innovative solutions for animal health and food safety; and providing the highest quality, most comprehensive clinical practice and diagnostic services. Our department is made up of highly trained specialists who span a wide range of veterinary disciplines and species interests. We have faculty of all ranks with expertise in diagnostics, medicine, surgery, pathology, microbiology, epidemiology, public health, and production medicine. Most have earned certification from specialty boards. Dozens of additional scientists and laboratory technicians support the research and service components of our department.
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Biomedical SciencesStatisticsVeterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
Abstract

Background:  Ketamine has immunomodulating effects both in vitro and in vivo during experimental endotoxemia in humans, rodents, and dogs.

Hypothesis:  Subanesthetic doses of ketamine will attenuate the clinical and immunologic responses to experimental endotoxemia in horses.

Animals:  Nineteen healthy mares of various breeds.

Methods:  Experimental study. Horses were randomized into 2 groups: ketamine-treated horses (KET; n = 9) and saline-treated horses (SAL; n = 10). Both groups received 30 ng/kg of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, Escherichia coli, O55:B5) 1 hour after the start of a continuous rate infusion (CRI) of racemic ketamine (KET) or physiologic saline (SAL). Clinical and hematological responses were documented and plasma concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) were quantified.

Results:  All horses safely completed the study. The KET group exhibited transient excitation during the ketamine loading infusion (P < .05) and 1 hour after discontinuation of administration (P < .05). Neutrophilic leukocytosis was greater in the KET group 8 and 24 hours after administration of LPS (P < .05). Minor perturbations of plasma biochemistry results were considered clinically insignificant. Plasma TNF-α and TXB2 production peaked 1.5 and 1 hours, respectively, after administration of LPS in both groups, but a significant difference between treatment groups was not demonstrated.

Conclusions and Clinical Importance:  A subanesthetic ketamine CRI is well tolerated by horses. A significant effect on the clinical or immunologic response to LPS administration, as assessed by clinical observation, hematological parameters, and TNF-α and TXB2production, was not identified in healthy horses with the subanesthetic dose of racemic ketamine utilized in this study.

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This article is from Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 25 (2011); 934: doi: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2011.0749.x. Posted with permission.

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Sat Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2011
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