Comparison of humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses to a single dose of Bovela® live double deleted BVDV vaccine or to a field BVDV strain

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2017-05-01
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Wang, Chong
Platt, Ratree
Kesl, Lyle
Guidarini, Christian
Wang, Chong
Roth, James
Roth, James
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Veterinary Microbiology and Preventive MedicineVeterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
Abstract

The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types 1 and 2 viruses in the Bovela® vaccine. Calves were assigned to 3 treatment groups: control (PBS), FSV inoculated, and Bovela® vaccinated. The humoral response was tested by standard serum virus neutralization (SVN) test to BVDV types 1 (Singer strain) and 2 (strain 125). The response by CD4, CD8, and gamma delta (γδ TCR) T cells was evaluated by MP-FCM using individual BVDV types 1 and 2 from Bovela® vaccine as recall antigens at 5, 6, and 7 weeks after vaccination. Activation markers used were upregulation of surface CD25 (IL-2R), intracellular interferon gamma (IFNγ) and intracellular interleukin 4 (IL-4). Each T cell subset was evaluated for increased expression of each activation marker compared to non-antigen stimulated cells of the same animal. All Bovela® vaccinated and FSV inoculated calves produced SVN antibodies to both BVDV types 1 and 2 while control animals remained seronegative throughout the study. The mean (weeks 5, 6, and 7) T cell recall responses to Bovela® BVDV type 1 and type 2 recall antigens were numerically higher in all three T cell subsets (CD4, CD8, and γδ TCR) for all three activation markers (CD25, IFNγ, and IL-4) when compared to either the control animals or to the FSV inoculated animals. These differences were often, but not always, statistically significant (P < 0.05)

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This article is from Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 187 (2017): 20, doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2017.03.003. Posted with permission.

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