Comparison of humoral and T-cell-mediated immune responses to a single dose of Bovela® live double deleted BVDV vaccine or to a field BVDV strain
The objective of this study was to determine and compare the humoral and cellular immune responses of calves exposed to a single dose of Bovela® bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) live double deleted vaccine or a field strain virus (FSV) of BVDV type 2 (strain 890). Thirty seronegative, colostrum-deprived 5 month-old Holstein steer calves that tested negative for persistent BVDV by ear notch immunohistochemistry and seronegative to BVDV types 1 and 2 were used. Calves were screened by multi-parameter flow cytometry (MP-FCM) 1 week before vaccination to ensure that they were negative for T cell responses to the BVDV types 1 and 2 viruses in the Bovela® vaccine. Calves were assigned to 3 treatment groups: control (PBS), FSV inoculated, and Bovela® vaccinated. The humoral response was tested by standard serum virus neutralization (SVN) test to BVDV types 1 (Singer strain) and 2 (strain 125). The response by CD4, CD8, and gamma delta (γδ TCR) T cells was evaluated by MP-FCM using individual BVDV types 1 and 2 from Bovela® vaccine as recall antigens at 5, 6, and 7 weeks after vaccination. Activation markers used were upregulation of surface CD25 (IL-2R), intracellular interferon gamma (IFNγ) and intracellular interleukin 4 (IL-4). Each T cell subset was evaluated for increased expression of each activation marker compared to non-antigen stimulated cells of the same animal. All Bovela® vaccinated and FSV inoculated calves produced SVN antibodies to both BVDV types 1 and 2 while control animals remained seronegative throughout the study. The mean (weeks 5, 6, and 7) T cell recall responses to Bovela® BVDV type 1 and type 2 recall antigens were numerically higher in all three T cell subsets (CD4, CD8, and γδ TCR) for all three activation markers (CD25, IFNγ, and IL-4) when compared to either the control animals or to the FSV inoculated animals. These differences were often, but not always, statistically significant (P < 0.05)
This article is from Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology 187 (2017): 20, doi: 10.1016/j.vetimm.2017.03.003. Posted with permission.