Ammonia and Greenhouse Gases Concentrations and Emissions of a Naturally Ventilated Laying Hen House in Northeast China
This study quantifies concentrations and emission rates (ER) of ammonia (NH3) and greenhouse gases (GHG) including carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) from a naturally ventilated cage layer (Hy-Line brown strain) house with daily manure removal, located in northeast China during four seasons of one year, with each monitoring episode lasting five consecutive days. Gaseous concentrations of background and exhaust air were measured using an infrared photoacoustic multi-gas monitor with a multi-channel sampler. Building ventilation rate (VR) was determined by CO2 mass balance using literature metabolic rate data for modern laying hens. Both gas concentrations and ER showed considerable diurnal and seasonal variations. Annual mean (±SD) ER of NH3, CO2, CH4, and N2O for the monitored layer house were, in mg d-1 bird-1, 129 ±40.3, 78,250 ±15,384, 112 ±56.5, and 9.4 ±2.5, respectively, or in g d-1 AU-1 (AU = 500 kg live body weight), 33.4 ±11.4, 19,975 ±3,071, 29.2 ±15.2, and 2.5 ±0.7, respectively. Ammonia ER from the current study was within the ranges of values reported for high-rise houses with annual manure removal and manure-belt houses with daily manure removal. Results of the study contribute to improving ammonia and GHG emissions inventory for animal feeding operations in China and worldwide.
This article is from Transactions of the ASABE 54, no. 3 (2011): 1085–1091.