Hydrophobic laser-induced graphene potentiometric ion-selective electrodes for nitrate sensing
Is Version Of
Mechanical EngineeringAgricultural and Biosystems EngineeringFood Science and Human NutritionVirtual Reality Applications CenterCivil, Construction and Environmental EngineeringChemistryAmes Laboratory
Current solid-contact ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) suffer from signal-to-noise drift and short lifespans partly due to water uptake and the development of an aqueous layer between the transducer and ion-selective membrane. To address these challenges, we report on a nitrate ISE based on hydrophobic laser-induced graphene (LIG) coated with a poly(vinyl) chloride–based nitrate selective membrane. The hydrophobic LIG was created using a polyimide substrate and a double lasing process under ambient conditions (air at 23.0 ± 1.0 °C) that resulted in a static water contact angle of 135.5 ± 0.7° (mean ± standard deviation) in wettability testing. The LIG–ISE displayed a Nernstian response of − 58.17 ± 4.21 mV dec−1 and a limit-of-detection (LOD) of 6.01 ± 1.44 µM. Constant current chronopotentiometry and a water layer test were used to evaluate the potential (emf) signal stability with similar performance to previously published work with graphene-based ISEs. Using a portable potentiostat, the sensor displayed comparable (p > 0.05) results to a US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)–accepted analytical method when analyzing water samples collected from two lakes in Ames, IA. The sensors were stored in surface water samples for 5 weeks and displayed nonsignificant difference in performance (LOD and sensitivity). These results, combined with a rapid and low-cost fabrication technique, make the development of hydrophobic LIG–ISEs appealing for a wide range of long-term in situ surface water quality applications.
Ion-selective electrodes (ISE), Solid contact, PVC membrane, Graphene, Potentiometry, Water quality, Agricultural nutrients