Effect of Grain Moisture Content and Roller Mill Gap Size on Various Physical Properties of Yellow Dent Corn Flour

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2022-02-14
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Noor Intan Shafinas, Muhammad
Bernard, Darfour
Nazira, Mahmud
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Canadian Center of Science and Education (CCSE)
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Rosentrater, Kurt
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Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Since 1905, the Department of Agricultural Engineering, now the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (ABE), has been a leader in providing engineering solutions to agricultural problems in the United States and the world. The department’s original mission was to mechanize agriculture. That mission has evolved to encompass a global view of the entire food production system–the wise management of natural resources in the production, processing, storage, handling, and use of food fiber and other biological products.

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In 1905 Agricultural Engineering was recognized as a subdivision of the Department of Agronomy, and in 1907 it was recognized as a unique department. It was renamed the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering in 1990. The department merged with the Department of Industrial Education and Technology in 2004.

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1905–present

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  • Department of Agricultural Engineering (1907–1990)

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Food Science and Human Nutrition

The Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition (FSHN) at Iowa State University is jointly administered by the Colleges of Agriculture and Life Sciences and Human Science. FSHN combines the study and practical application of food sciences and technology with human nutrition in preparation for a variety of fields including: the culinary sciences, dietetics, nutrition, food industries, and diet and exercise.

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The department was established in 1991 through the merging of the Department of Food Sciences and Technology (of the College of Agriculture), and the Department of Food and Nutrition (of the College of Family and Consumer Sciences).

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Leopold Center for Sustainable Agriculture
The Leopold Center is a research and education center on the campus of Iowa State University created to identify and reduce negative environmental and social impacts of farming and develop new ways to farm profitably while conserving natural resources.
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Center for Crops Utilization Research
In the 1980s a crisis existed in American farming—a crisis of overproduction, underutilization, and decreasing international market share for raw commodities. Also, the United States’ growing dependence on imported oil and long-term forecasts for increasing oil prices put America at risk. To address this crisis, Center for Crops Utilization Research (CCUR) was established in 1984 through a special appropriation from the Iowa legislature. The center was tasked to respond to the urgent need to improve America’s agricultural competitiveness. Four decades later, there are new opportunities to increase demand for Iowa’s crops. Consumer demand is increasing for new healthful food ingredients, biobased alternatives to petroleum-based products, and sustainable and environmentally friendly industrial processes. The rapid advancement of new food processing technologies and industrial biotechnology enable those demands to be met in an economically viable way. While CCUR’s core mission of increasing demand for Iowa crops remains relevant, the center is also taking these opportunities to grow our connection with companies and entrepreneurs to help them to test, troubleshoot, and optimize their ideas in an industrial-friendly setting.
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Corn has six main varieties grown globally for animal feed, human consumption, and commercial/industrial purposes. Flour is an end-product of corn dry-milling. Products that are derived from corn flour often show differences in physical, chemical, and pasting properties due to corn varietal differences, milling methods, differences in flour particle sizes, and drying temperatures. The study aimed to determine the effect of different moisture contents of yellow dent corn and roller gap sizes, on the physical properties of the resulting corn flour. The possibility to use the flour in the manufacturing of animal feed and ethanol production was also considered. Yellow dent corn grain with moisture contents (MC) of 8%, 14.0%, and 18%, and roller gap sizes (GAP) of 0.1016 mm, 0.2032 mm, and 0.3048 mm were used. The Witt corrugated roller mill equipment with rollers of 1/32 inches corrugations was used to produce fine grits and flours. The particle sizes obtained were between 0.54 mm and 0.75 mm which increased with an increase in MC and GAP. Grain with 8% MC and GAP of 0.1016 mm and 0.2032 mm, and grain with 14.0% MC and GAP of 0.1016 mm can produce flour of particle sizes good for swine feed. Grain with 8% MC and GAP of 0.3048 mm and grain with 14.0.0% MC and GAP of 0.1016 mm and 0.2032 mm can produce flour of particle sizes good for ruminant feed. Grain with 18% MC and GAP of 0.1016 mm, and grain with 14.0% MC and GAP of 0.2032 mm can produce flour of particle sizes good for poultry feed. GAP of 0.1016 mm and 8% MC can produce flour of particle sizes suitable for the ethanol production industry. Flour preparation should purposely be done based on grain MC and GAP. The geometric mean diameter of particle sizes ranged from 0.54 mm-0.75 mm, and the geometric mean diameter of particle sizes increased with increasing MC and GAP. Also, grains with 8% MC had the highest loss in flour, and the higher moisture of 18% significantly affected the red color of flour.
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This article is published as Shafinas, Muhammad Noor Intan, Darfour Bernard, Mahmud Nazira, and Kurt A. Rosentrater. "Effect of Grain Moisture Content and Roller Mill Gap Size on Various Physical Properties of Yellow Dent Corn Flour." Journal of Food Research 11, no. 2 (2022). DOI: 10.5539/jfr.v11n2p16. Copyright 2022 The Author(s). Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Posted with permission.
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