Chapter 1: Basic Principles of the Thermal Environment and Livestock Energetics DeShazer, James Hahn, G. Xin, Hongwei
dc.contributor.department Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering 2018-02-13T04:37:59.000 2020-06-29T22:38:10Z 2020-06-29T22:38:10Z Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2009 2012-12-18 2009-01-01
dc.description.abstract <p>Description of the thermal environment and the livestock response can be complex, and has been the subject of extensive research for over fiver decades inspired in part by a joint report sponsored by ASAE (now ASABE) and ASHRAE. This 1959 report presented the "State of the Art" of the thermal environmental requirements of poultry (Stewart and Hinkle, 1959), dairy cattle (Yeck, 1959), beef cattle (Nelson, 1959), swine (Bond, 1959) and sheep (Kelly, 1959). Even though the report was comprehensive, data were noted as being incomplete for understanding the biophysical interactions between the animal and its thermal environment as required for effective management and engineering design. Heat loss for poultry was primarily based on basal (fasted) conditions, for example, and the role of the skin and hair in heat dissipation from cattle was inadequate. Comprehensive studies have been conducted in the intervening 50 years to evaluate the effects of nutrition, acclimation or conditioning, dynamic changes in the environment, physiological state, and social interactions on livestock productivity responses to the thermal environment: temperature, humidity, radiation, and air velocity.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This book chapter is from James A. DeShazer, ed., <a href="" target="_blank"><em>Livestock Energetics and Thermal Environment Management</em></a>, 1–22. St. Joseph, MI: ASABE, 2009. </p>
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dc.identifier.articleid 1232
dc.identifier.contextkey 3548886
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dc.subject.disciplines Agriculture
dc.subject.disciplines Bioresource and Agricultural Engineering
dc.subject.keywords Introduction
dc.subject.keywords Characterization of Livestock Responses to Thermal Environments
dc.subject.keywords Thermal Exchange and Animal Responses
dc.subject.keywords Driving Forces for Heat Exchange Gradients
dc.subject.keywords Air Temperature
dc.subject.keywords Contact Temperature
dc.subject.keywords Radiant Temperatures
dc.subject.keywords Vapor Pressure
dc.title Chapter 1: Basic Principles of the Thermal Environment and Livestock Energetics
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
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