Organizational culture and personality type: relationship with person-organization fit and turnover intention

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Giffen, Ryan
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Susan W. Arendt
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Apparel, Events and Hospitality Management

In the past two decades, researchers have implied organizational success was contingent on the compatibility between employees and organizations, known as person-organization (PO) fit. The lack of congruence between employees and their organizations may result in employee turnover. Although the body of literature in the human resources management and organizational development is vast, the hospitality literature demonstrates a need for further research in PO fit and employee turnover intention. The purpose of this research study was to assess several relationships pertaining to hotel organizational culture, employee personality types, PO fit, and turnover intention.

Data were collected by using items from Dawson, Abbott and Shoemaker's (2011) hospitality culture scale, Edward (1991), Cable and Judge (1996) and Piasentin and Chapman (2006) PO fit items, Roodt's (2004) turnover intention scale and Porter's (2005) strength deployment inventory. Lastly, demographic characteristic items were included. A response rate of 34% (N = 231) was received on a paper questionnaire sent to hourly and non-hourly employees from 14 upper-upscale hotels located throughout the southern region of California.

Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, Pearson's coefficient correlation analysis, regression analysis, independent samples t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) to answer five research questions. A correlation was found between hotel organizational culture and employee personality type [r (226) = .301, p < .001]. Multiple regression showed hotel organizational culture [t (225) = 15.448, p < .001] statistically significantly predicted PO Fit [F (1,224) = 238.635, p < .001]. Regression showed personality type [t (225) = 5.189, p < .001] statistically significantly predicted PO fit [F (1, 227) = 26.930, p < .001]. An inverse relationship was found between PO fit and employee turnover intention [r (226) = -.759, p < .001]. Lastly, independent samples t-test and ANOVA found no significant difference between three demographic characteristics and turnover intention: sex [t (224) = 1.57, p = 0.118], employment status [t (224) = 0.292, p = 0.771] and employee age [F (3,172) = 1.762, p = 0.156]. Practical and research implications are discussed. Limitations and recommendations for further research are also provided.

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Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2015