Comparison of Three Magnetic Techniques for Biaxial Stress Measurement
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Magnetic properties of ferromagnetic materials are often sensitive to residual and applied stresses principally through the effect of magnetostriction. Each magnetic domain within the material is strained along its direction of magnetization. Consequently a change in the stress level will result in a modification to the domain configuration so as to reduce the elastic and magnetoelastic energy. The gross magnetic properties such as coercivity, hysteresis, permeability and remanence are intimately related to the microscale of domain sizes and orientations, and so measurement of such properties can be used to infer the stress state [1–4]. Other magnetic techniques used for stress measurement include Barkhausen emission (BE) [5–7], magnetoacoustic emission (MAE)  and magnetoacoustic response . A number of these magnetic techniques are currently being developed for stress measurement with a wide range of applications in the energy supply, aerospace, materials, fabrication, construction and engineering industries.