Comparison of X-ray and optical measurements in the near-field of an optically dense coaxial air-assisted atomizer

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Bothell, Julie
Machicoane, Nathanael
Li, Danyu
Morgan, Timothy
Aliseda, Alberto
Kastengren, Alan
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Heindel, Theodore
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Mechanical Engineering
The Department of Mechanical Engineering at Iowa State University is where innovation thrives and the impossible is made possible. This is where your passion for problem-solving and hands-on learning can make a real difference in our world. Whether you’re helping improve the environment, creating safer automobiles, or advancing medical technologies, and athletic performance, the Department of Mechanical Engineering gives you the tools and talent to blaze your own trail to an amazing career.
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Chemical and Biological Engineering

The function of the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering has been to prepare students for the study and application of chemistry in industry. This focus has included preparation for employment in various industries as well as the development, design, and operation of equipment and processes within industry.Through the CBE Department, Iowa State University is nationally recognized for its initiatives in bioinformatics, biomaterials, bioproducts, metabolic/tissue engineering, multiphase computational fluid dynamics, advanced polymeric materials and nanostructured materials.

The Department of Chemical Engineering was founded in 1913 under the Department of Physics and Illuminating Engineering. From 1915 to 1931 it was jointly administered by the Divisions of Industrial Science and Engineering, and from 1931 onward it has been under the Division/College of Engineering. In 1928 it merged with Mining Engineering, and from 1973–1979 it merged with Nuclear Engineering. It became Chemical and Biological Engineering in 2005.

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1913 - present

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  • Department of Chemical Engineering (1913–1928)
  • Department of Chemical and Mining Engineering (1928–1957)
  • Department of Chemical Engineering (1957–1973, 1979–2005)
    • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (2005–present)

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Understanding the near-field region of a spray is integral to optimization and control efforts because this region is where liquid break-up and spray formation occurs, setting the conditions under which the spray dynamics evolve under the gas turbulence and droplet inertia. However, the high optical density of this region complicates measurements; thus, it is not yet well characterized. This paper is intended to compare four of the leading experimental techniques that are being used or developed to study the near-field region of a spray. These techniques are shadowgraphy, tube source X-ray radiography, high-speed synchrotron white-beam X-ray imaging, and synchrotron focused-beam X-ray radiography. Each of these methods is applied to a canonical spray, using the same nozzle, under identical flow conditions. Synchrotron focused-beam radiography shows that a time-averaged Gaussian liquid distribution is a valid approximation very near the nozzle, before the core has broken apart. The Gaussian behavior continues as the spray progresses further downstream, showing self-similarity. A spray angle can be defined from the linear spreading of the Gaussian intensity distribution with downstream distance. The spray angle found from shadowgraphy is validated with focused-beam testing. Additionally, a novel method of estimating the intact length of the spray from different X-ray techniques, that uses broadband illumination, is presented.


This is a manuscript of an article published as Bothell, Julie K., Nathanael Machicoane, Danyu Li, Timothy B. Morgan, Alberto Aliseda, Alan L. Kastengren, and Theodore J. Heindel. "Comparison of X-ray and optical measurements in the near-field of an optically dense coaxial air-assisted atomizer." International Journal of Multiphase Flow (2020): 103219. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2020.103219. Posted with permission.

Wed Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2020