How crosslinking Mechanisms of Methacrylated Gellan Gum Hydrogels Alter Macrophage Phenotype

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Li, Zhuqing
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Bratlie, Kaitlin
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Ames National Laboratory

Ames National Laboratory is a government-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), operated by and located on the campus of Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa.

For more than 70 years, the Ames National Laboratory has successfully partnered with Iowa State University, and is unique among the 17 DOE laboratories in that it is physically located on the campus of a major research university. Many of the scientists and administrators at the Laboratory also hold faculty positions at the University and the Laboratory has access to both undergraduate and graduate student talent.

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Materials Science and Engineering

The Department of Materials Science and Engineering teaches the composition, microstructure, and processing of materials as well as their properties, uses, and performance. These fields of research utilize technologies in metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and electronic materials.

The Department of Materials Science and Engineering was formed in 1975 from the merger of the Department of Ceramics Engineering and the Department of Metallurgical Engineering.

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Chemical and Biological Engineering

The function of the Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering has been to prepare students for the study and application of chemistry in industry. This focus has included preparation for employment in various industries as well as the development, design, and operation of equipment and processes within industry.Through the CBE Department, Iowa State University is nationally recognized for its initiatives in bioinformatics, biomaterials, bioproducts, metabolic/tissue engineering, multiphase computational fluid dynamics, advanced polymeric materials and nanostructured materials.

The Department of Chemical Engineering was founded in 1913 under the Department of Physics and Illuminating Engineering. From 1915 to 1931 it was jointly administered by the Divisions of Industrial Science and Engineering, and from 1931 onward it has been under the Division/College of Engineering. In 1928 it merged with Mining Engineering, and from 1973–1979 it merged with Nuclear Engineering. It became Chemical and Biological Engineering in 2005.

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1913 - present

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  • Department of Chemical Engineering (1913–1928)
  • Department of Chemical and Mining Engineering (1928–1957)
  • Department of Chemical Engineering (1957–1973, 1979–2005)
    • Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering (2005–present)

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In tissue engineering scaffolds, macrophages play a critical role in determining the host response to implanted biomaterials. Macrophage phenotype is dynamic throughout the host response, and a balance of phenotypes is essential for timely progression from injury to proper wound healing. Therefore, it is important to predict how materials will modulate the response of macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effect of methacrylated gellan gum hydrogels on macrophage phenotype and proliferation with the ultimate goal of improving rational design of biomedical implants. Naïve, along with classically and alternatively activated RAW 264.7 macrophages were seeded on methacrylated gellan gum hydrogels that were fabricated with different thiol-ene ratios and crosslinking mechanisms. Live/dead assays showed that all hydrogels supported cell attachment and proliferation. Stiffer substrates enhanced anti-inflammatory production of nitrites from both naïve and classically activated macrophages compared to the softer substrates. Moreover, arginine and CD206 expression – markers for alternatively activated macrophages – were inhibited by higher thiol content. Introducing ionic crosslinks using calcium did not influence the proliferation or polarization for any of the three macrophage phenotypes. Our results suggest that the macrophage phenotype shift from M1 to M2 is controlled by the different crosslinking mechanisms, physical properties, and the chemistry of methacrylated gellan gum hydrogels.


This document is the Accepted Manuscript version of a Published Work that appeared in final form in ACS Applied Bio Materials, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review and technical editing by the publisher. To access the final edited and published work see DOI: 10.1021/acsabm.8b00562. Posted with permission.

Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2018