Real-Space Imaging of the Tailored Plasmons in Twisted Bilayer Graphene

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Hu, F.
Das, Suprem
Luan, Y.
Chung, T.-F.
Chen, Y.-P.
Fei, Zhe
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Ames National Laboratory

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We report a systematic plasmonic study of twisted bilayer graphene (TBLG)—two graphene layers stacked with a twist angle. Through real-space nanoimaging of TBLG single crystals with a wide distribution of twist angles, we find that TBLG supports confined infrared plasmons that are sensitively dependent on the twist angle. At small twist angles, TBLG has a plasmon wavelength comparable to that of single-layer graphene. At larger twist angles, the plasmon wavelength of TBLG increases significantly with apparently lower damping. Further analysis and modeling indicate that the observed twist-angle dependence of TBLG plasmons in the Dirac linear regime is mainly due to the Fermi-velocity renormalization, a direct consequence of interlayer electronic coupling. Our work unveils the tailored plasmonic characteristics of TBLG and deepens our understanding of the intriguing nano-optical physics in novel van der Waals coupled two-dimensional materials.