Extraction Force Prediction for Male Entrapment Victims with Different Body Types Submerged below the Grain Surface

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Schwab, Lauren
Schwab, Pamela
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Schwab, Charles
Professor Emeritus
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Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering

The Department of Civil, Construction, and Environmental Engineering seeks to apply knowledge of the laws, forces, and materials of nature to the construction, planning, design, and maintenance of public and private facilities. The Civil Engineering option focuses on transportation systems, bridges, roads, water systems and dams, pollution control, etc. The Construction Engineering option focuses on construction project engineering, design, management, etc.

The Department of Civil Engineering was founded in 1889. In 1987 it changed its name to the Department of Civil and Construction Engineering. In 2003 it changed its name to the Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering.

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  • Department of Civil Engineering (1889-1987)
  • Department of Civil and Construction Engineering (1987-2003)
  • Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering (2003–present)

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Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering

Since 1905, the Department of Agricultural Engineering, now the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering (ABE), has been a leader in providing engineering solutions to agricultural problems in the United States and the world. The department’s original mission was to mechanize agriculture. That mission has evolved to encompass a global view of the entire food production system–the wise management of natural resources in the production, processing, storage, handling, and use of food fiber and other biological products.

In 1905 Agricultural Engineering was recognized as a subdivision of the Department of Agronomy, and in 1907 it was recognized as a unique department. It was renamed the Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering in 1990. The department merged with the Department of Industrial Education and Technology in 2004.

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  • Department of Agricultural Engineering (1907–1990)

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One contributor to agriculture‘s high death rate is confined space fatalities caused by entrapment in grain. Over 1,000 grain-related fatalities have been documented by researchers in 43 states, and states with the largest grain storage capacities have been shown to experience a proportionally larger number of suffocation fatalities. Several researchers have measured extraction forces in specific conditions, but a reference standard is needed for estimating the extraction forces for grain suffocation victims in common conditions. A prediction model for estimating extraction forces was developed using the principle of boundary shear, an approximation of human surface area, and a commonly accepted equation for lateral granular pressure. This research reintroduces the prediction model for extraction forces and explores several sensitivity analyses of the input variables. It also updates the anthropometric data used in the model calculations and produces extraction force estimates for adult male victims with different body shapes submerged below the grain surface. Results from the prediction model are presented graphically for common input variables, various entrapment depths, and adult male body shapes.


This article is published as Schwab, Charles V., Lauren E. Schwab, and Pamela J. Schwab. "Extraction Force Prediction for Male Entrapment Victims with Different Body Types Submerged below the Grain Surface." Journal of Agricultural Safety and Health 25, no. 2 (2019): 77-90. DOI: 10.13031/jash.13155. Posted with permission.

Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2019