Texturized lipoxygenase-free and normal soy concentrates and isolates in ground beef patties

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1999
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Chin, Sheau-Meng
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Reitmeier, Cheryll A.
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Isolates and ethanol- and acid-washed concentrates made from normal (lipoxygenase- present) and lipoxygenase-free lines of soybeans were extruded into texturized soy proteins (TSP) using a single-screw C.W. Brabender (Model 2003 GR-8) laboratory extruder. Physical and chemical properties of the TSP were evaluated. The effects of different types of TSP in ground beef were investigated. Soy protein was mixed with water (1:4/water:protein) and held at 40C for 24 hours prior to extrusion. Each blend was extruded at 100 rpm. Various temperature profiles in the barrel zones toward the die plate (140, 150, 155, and 1600C for concentrates and 140, 150, 160, and 1700C for isolates) were tested. Maximum puffing without burnt odor or irregular browning occurred at 1550C for concentrates and 1600C for isolates. Texturized soy proteins (TSP) made from acid-washed concentrates differed in water absorption capacity (WAC), fat absorption capacity (FAC), and expansion ratio (ER) from ethanol-washed TSP. No difference was found in WAC, ER, and BD between lipoxygenase-free and normal TSP. Normal TSP, with higher reducing sugar values, had the lowest Hunter L values. Sensory descriptive panelists noted no differences in juiciness, chewiness, and soy flavor between lipoxygenase-free and normal TSP-extended (20%) patties. Normal acid-washed TSP-containing patties had the highest sensory exterior color score and lowest Hunter L value. Acid-washed TSP-extended patties were firmer than those with ethanol-washed TSP. Soy patties had lower drip loss and higher moisture content than 100% ground beef patties.
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