Predictors of youth after-school involvement: The role of congruence between perceived early community and family supportive control
Is Version Of
The objective of the present study was twofold: 1) to understand how perceived community and family supportive control during early adolescence were associated with late adolescent after-school involvement while controlling for self-selection factors for a sample of low-income, urban, minority adolescents; and 2) to examine how congruency between the perceived community and family contexts influenced after-school involvement overtime. Three waves of data from the Welfare, Children, and Families: A Three-City Study were used (N = 528; Ages 16-20 at Wave 3). First, a series of lagged Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) hierarchical multiple regressions were conducted to determine if exposure to early community and family supportive control was linked with late adolescent after-school involvement. Results show that early after-school involvement and being male were linked to increases in after-school involvement over time. A trend-level main effect for perceived community supportive control was found, whereby adolescents living in areas with high community supportive control decreased their involvement over time. Secondly, to determine if there were differential effects of environmental congruency for youth in after-school involvement, dummy categories for the environmental congruence groups were included in an additional hierarchical regression. Adolescents living in incongruent environments, specifically living in areas perceived as being low in community supportive control and high in family supportive control significantly increased after-school involvement compared to those living in environments with average supportive control overtime. Results are presented separately by adolescents' gender and ethnicity as well. Implications for early intervention are explored.