Minute-sensitive real-time monitoring of neural cells through printed graphene microelectrodes

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Niaraki, Amir
Abbasi Shirsavar, Mehran
Aykar, Saurabh S.
Montazami, Reza
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Elsevier B.V.
Hashemi, Nicole
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Mechanical Engineering
The Department of Mechanical Engineering at Iowa State University is where innovation thrives and the impossible is made possible. This is where your passion for problem-solving and hands-on learning can make a real difference in our world. Whether you’re helping improve the environment, creating safer automobiles, or advancing medical technologies, and athletic performance, the Department of Mechanical Engineering gives you the tools and talent to blaze your own trail to an amazing career.
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Biomedical Sciences

The Department of Biomedical Sciences aims to provide knowledge of anatomy and physiology in order to understand the mechanisms and treatment of animal diseases. Additionally, it seeks to teach the understanding of drug-action for rational drug-therapy, as well as toxicology, pharmacodynamics, and clinical drug administration.

The Department of Biomedical Sciences was formed in 1999 as a merger of the Department of Veterinary Anatomy and the Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology.

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  • College of Veterinary Medicine (parent college)
  • Department of Veterinary Anatomy (predecessor, 1997)
  • Department of Veterinary Physiology and Pharmacology (predecessor, 1997)

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Ames National Laboratory

Ames National Laboratory is a government-owned, contractor-operated national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), operated by and located on the campus of Iowa State University in Ames, Iowa.

For more than 70 years, the Ames National Laboratory has successfully partnered with Iowa State University, and is unique among the 17 DOE laboratories in that it is physically located on the campus of a major research university. Many of the scientists and administrators at the Laboratory also hold faculty positions at the University and the Laboratory has access to both undergraduate and graduate student talent.

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Bioeconomy Institute
The Bioeconomy Institute at Iowa State University leads the nation and world in establishing the bioeconomy, where society obtains renewable fuel, energy, chemicals, and materials from agricultural sources. The institute seeks to advance the use of biorenewable resources for the production of fuels, energy, chemicals, and materials. The Institute will assure Iowa’s prominence in the revolution that is changing the way society obtains its essential sources of energy and carbon. This revolution will dramatically reduce our dependence on petroleum. Instead of fossil sources of carbon and energy, the bioeconomy will use biomass (including lignocellulose, starches, oils and proteins) as a renewable resource to sustain economic growth and prosperity. Agriculture will supply renewable energy and carbon to the bioeconomy while engineering will transform these resources into transportation fuels, commodity chemicals, and electric power. This transformation, however, must be done in a manner that meets our present needs without compromising those of future generations.
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Real-time and high-throughput cytometric monitoring of neural cells exposed to injury mechanisms is invaluable for in-vitro studies. Electrical impedance spectroscopy via microelectrode arrays is a label-free technique for monitoring of neural growth and their detachment upon death. In this method, the interface material plays a vital role to provide desirable attachment cues for the cell network. Thus, here we demonstrate the electrohydrodynamic patterning of aqueous graphene for microelectrode fabrication. We investigated whether the wrinkled surface morphology of the electrodes fabricated by this deposition method expands their electroactive surface area and thus enables a rapid response time. The nano-scale quality of the graphene lattice is characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Transmittance electron microscopy. N27 rat dopaminergic neural cells were cultured on the chips and the surface morphology of the microelectrodes during cellular growth was investigated by Scanning electrode spectroscopy. Attachment of the neural population on the graphene microelectrodes was parametrized and the change in the impedance spectrum of this cell population was quantified at 10 Hz to 10 kHz frequencies along with the change in TUBB3 gene expression. The viability test of the cell population on the biosensor demonstrated no significant difference in comparison to the control, and a cell density of 2289 cell/mm2 was achieved. As a proof of concept, the confluent N27 cell population was exposed to UV and its cytotoxic impact on neural detachment and lift-off was monitored. The multiplexed detection of cellular activity was reported with a temporal resolution of one minute.
This is a manuscript of an article published as Niaraki, Amir, Mehran Abbasi Shirsavar, Saurabh S. Aykar, Mehrnoosh Taghavimehr, Reza Montazami, and Nicole N. Hashemi. "Minute-sensitive real-time monitoring of neural cells through printed graphene microelectrodes." 210 Biosensors and Bioelectronics (2022): 114284. DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2022.114284. Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Posted with permission.