Minute-sensitive real-time monitoring of neural cells through printed graphene microelectrodes

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Niaraki, Amir
Abbasi Shirsavar, Mehran
Aykar, Saurabh S.
Taghavimehr, Mehrnoosh
Montazami, Reza
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Elsevier B.V.
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Mechanical EngineeringBiomedical SciencesAmes LaboratoryBioeconomy Institute
Real-time and high-throughput cytometric monitoring of neural cells exposed to injury mechanisms is invaluable for in-vitro studies. Electrical impedance spectroscopy via microelectrode arrays is a label-free technique for monitoring of neural growth and their detachment upon death. In this method, the interface material plays a vital role to provide desirable attachment cues for the cell network. Thus, here we demonstrate the electrohydrodynamic patterning of aqueous graphene for microelectrode fabrication. We investigated whether the wrinkled surface morphology of the electrodes fabricated by this deposition method expands their electroactive surface area and thus enables a rapid response time. The nano-scale quality of the graphene lattice is characterized by Raman spectroscopy and Transmittance electron microscopy. N27 rat dopaminergic neural cells were cultured on the chips and the surface morphology of the microelectrodes during cellular growth was investigated by Scanning electrode spectroscopy. Attachment of the neural population on the graphene microelectrodes was parametrized and the change in the impedance spectrum of this cell population was quantified at 10 Hz to 10 kHz frequencies along with the change in TUBB3 gene expression. The viability test of the cell population on the biosensor demonstrated no significant difference in comparison to the control, and a cell density of 2289 cell/mm2 was achieved. As a proof of concept, the confluent N27 cell population was exposed to UV and its cytotoxic impact on neural detachment and lift-off was monitored. The multiplexed detection of cellular activity was reported with a temporal resolution of one minute.
This is a manuscript of an article published as Niaraki, Amir, Mehran Abbasi Shirsavar, Saurabh S. Aykar, Mehrnoosh Taghavimehr, Reza Montazami, and Nicole N. Hashemi. "Minute-sensitive real-time monitoring of neural cells through printed graphene microelectrodes." 210 Biosensors and Bioelectronics (2022): 114284. DOI: 10.1016/j.bios.2022.114284. Copyright 2022 Elsevier B.V. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) Posted with permission.