Comparison of the Cardiovascular Benefits of Resistance, Aerobic, and Combined Exercise (CardioRACE): Rationale, design, and methods

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Brellenthin, Angelique
Lanningham-Foster, Lorraine
Kohut, Marian
Li, Yehua
Church, Timothy
Blair, Steven
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Lee, Duck-Chul
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The Department of Kinesiology seeks to provide an ample knowledge of physical activity and active living to students both within and outside of the program; by providing knowledge of the role of movement and physical activity throughout the lifespan, it seeks to improve the lives of all members of the community. Its options for students enrolled in the department include: Athletic Training; Community and Public Health; Exercise Sciences; Pre-Health Professions; and Physical Education Teacher Licensure. The Department of Physical Education was founded in 1974 from the merger of the Department of Physical Education for Men and the Department of Physical Education for Women. In 1981 its name changed to the Department of Physical Education and Leisure Studies. In 1993 its name changed to the Department of Health and Human Performance. In 2007 its name changed to the Department of Kinesiology. Dates of Existence: 1974-present. Historical Names: Department of Physical Education (1974-1981), Department of Physical Education and Leisure Studies (1981-1993), Department of Health and Human Performance (1993-2007). Related Units: College of Human Sciences (parent college), College of Education (parent college, 1974 - 2005), Department of Physical Education for Women (predecessor) Department of Physical Education for Men
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Background The benefits of aerobic exercise (AE) for cardiovascular disease (CVD) have been well documented. Resistance exercise (RE) has been traditionally examined for its effects on bone density, physical function, or metabolic health, yet few data exist regarding the benefits of RE, independent of and combined with AE, for CVD prevention. This randomized controlled trial, “Comparison of the Cardiovascular Benefits of Resistance, Aerobic, and Combined Exercise (CardioRACE),” is designed to determine the relative benefits of RE, AE, or combined RE plus AE training on CVD risk factors.

Methods Participants are 406 inactive men and women (35-70 years) with a body mass index of 25-40 kg/m2 and blood pressure (BP) of 120-139/80-89 mm Hg without taking antihypertensive medications. Participants are randomly assigned to RE only, AE only, combined RE and AE (CE), or a no exercise control group. Participants perform supervised exercise at 50%-80% of their relative maximum intensity for both AE and RE, 3 times a week for 60 minutes per session, for 1 year (all 3 groups are time matched).

Results The primary outcome is a composite z score including resting BP, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), fasting glucose, and percent body fat, which is assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Diet and outside physical activity are measured throughout the intervention for 1 year.

Conclusion CardioRACE ( NCT03069092) will fill an important knowledge gap regarding the effects of RE, alone or in addition to the well-documented effects of AE. CardioRACE will help generate more comprehensive and synergistic clinical and public health strategies to prevent CVD.


This accepted article is published as 94. Brellenthin AG, Lanningham-Foster LM, Kohut ML, Li Y, Church TS, Blair SN, Lee DC (corresponding author). Comparison of the cardiovascular benefits of resistance, aerobic, and combined exercise (CardioRACE): rationale, design, and methods. Am Heart J. 217(2019); 101-111. doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2019.08.008. Posted with permission.

Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2018