Susceptibility of domestic pigs to experimental infection with ebolaviruses

dc.contributor.advisor Roth, Jim
dc.contributor.advisor Dodd, Kimd
dc.contributor.advisor McGill, Jodi
dc.contributor.advisor Miller, Cathy
dc.contributor.advisor Pickering, Brad
dc.contributor.author Lewis, Charles Elliott
dc.contributor.department Veterinary Microbiology and Preventative Medicine en_US
dc.date.accessioned 2022-11-09T00:08:43Z
dc.date.available 2022-11-09T00:08:43Z
dc.date.issued 2022-05
dc.date.updated 2022-11-09T00:08:43Z
dc.description.abstract The Ebolavirus genus contains several of the deadliest zoonotic viruses known. Though bats are routinely implicated as the possible reservoir host for the ebolaviruses, the involvement of other species in ecology of these viruses is unclear. In 2008, domestic pigs were shown to be naturally infected with Reston virus (RESTV), the only ebolavirus known to be non-pathogenic in humans. Subsequent experimental infections have demonstrated that pigs are also susceptible to highly lethal, human-pathogenic Ebola virus, raising further concerns about food safety, pathogenicity, and the role pigs may play in ebolavirus ecology and spillover dynamics. Whether infection of domestic pigs can support the eventual emergence of a human-pathogenic RESTV is unclear, necessitating further investigation into the pig-ebolavirus relationship. Here, we describe the successful experimental infection of domestic pigs with a non-human primate-derived isolate of RESTV resulting in severe pulmonary pathology with systemic dissemination of virus, shedding of infectious virus, and transmission to and subsequent infection of a co-housed, naïve contact animal. Our data show that pig-adaptation of the virus was not required for infection and that natural infection of pigs could arise directly from non-human primates, or vice versa. We also provide the first report describing the susceptibility of domestic pigs to Bundibugyo virus (BDBV), another highly pathogenic ebolavirus responsible for outbreaks of lethal disease in humans. We show that pigs are not only susceptible to experimental infection with BDBV, but that the development of productive infection, tissue dissemination, and shedding of infectious virus can occur while animals remain clinically asymptomatic. The results of these studies further support the hypothesis that pigs may serve as intermediate or amplifying hosts in ebolavirus ecology, leading to concerns for both human public health and food security.
dc.format.mimetype PDF
dc.identifier.doi https://doi.org/10.31274/td-20240329-709
dc.identifier.orcid 0000-0002-2489-0605
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/Dw88j69w
dc.language.iso en
dc.language.rfc3066 en
dc.subject.disciplines Microbiology en_US
dc.subject.disciplines Public health en_US
dc.subject.disciplines Virology en_US
dc.subject.keywords Bundibugyo virus en_US
dc.subject.keywords ebolavirus en_US
dc.subject.keywords Maximum containment en_US
dc.subject.keywords Pigs en_US
dc.subject.keywords Reston virus en_US
dc.subject.keywords Zoonosis en_US
dc.title Susceptibility of domestic pigs to experimental infection with ebolaviruses
dc.type article en_US
dc.type.genre dissertation en_US
dspace.entity.type Publication
thesis.degree.discipline Microbiology en_US
thesis.degree.discipline Public health en_US
thesis.degree.discipline Virology en_US
thesis.degree.grantor Iowa State University en_US
thesis.degree.level dissertation $
thesis.degree.name Doctor of Philosophy en_US
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