Development of ultra-high efficiency, low hysteresis antiferroelectric ceramics for high energy density capacitor applications

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2021-07
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Mohapatra, Pratyasha
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Cui, Jun
Tan, Xiaoli
Kramer, Matthew J
Martin, Steve W
Hu, Shan
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Materials Science and Engineering
Abstract
Antiferroelectric ceramics are considered highly promising candidates for high-energy density capacitor applications. The electric field induced reversible transition between antiferroelectric and ferroelectric phases forms the basis of the energy storage process in these capacitors. Nevertheless, due to the hysteresis losses associated with the phase transitions, the fraction of the useful energy recovered from the stored energy (efficiency) is limited to 65-80%. The present work aims at designing novel lead zirconate titanate based antiferroelectric ceramics with diminished hysteresis loss and to evaluate the effect of hysteresis on the long-term capacitor life. A new strategy to induce relaxor behavior in an antiferroelectric PbZrO3-PbSnO3-PbTiO3 based composition is introduced to reduce hysteresis and improve the energy efficiency. Solid solutions with different bismuth-based complexes are formed to simultaneously dope the A-site and B-site of the antiferroelectric ABO3 perovskite lattice with aliovalent ions. The solid solution with Bi(Zn2/3Nb1/3)O3 is the most effective in inducing relaxor antiferroelectric behavior and improves the energy efficiency from 82.6% to 93.2% by reducing the electric hysteresis. The approach also demonstrates promising applicability to reduce hysteresis in different base antiferroelectric compositions. The prolonged application of electric loading to a capacitor leads to the decay in its performance, referred to as electric fatigue. The hysteresis of an antiferroelectric material impacts the degree of deterioration of electric properties and the performance stability of the capacitor. For capacitors designed for the desired energy density, compositions with a larger hysteresis display an early degradation in their polarization, electric field-induced strain, and energy efficiency, thereby shortening the operation life. Hysteresis also shows an influence on the mechanism and severity of the fatigue damage. The electric properties of the antiferroelectric compositions are dependent on their composition. The correlation between different critical electric properties and the doping concentration in antiferroelectric PbZrO3-PbSnO3-PbTiO3 based solid solution is examined from compositions published previously. Multiple linear regression models are developed to quantify the composition-property relations for critical fields of the antiferroelectric-ferroelectric transition. These models can be used to guide the design of antiferroelectric compositions with tailored electric properties for low hysteresis, high efficiency, and long fatigue life.
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