Effects of Complete Vitamin and Mineral Supplementation in Full Potential All-milk Diets on Growth and Health of Holstein Bull Calves
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Pre-ruminant Holstein bull calves were fed two diets of pasteurized whole milk (PWM) in amounts that either limited intake or that maximized intake according to common commercial practice. Diets then were either supplemented or not supplemented with a full complement of vitamins and trace minerals (VTM) that met or exceeded NRC requirements. The objective of the study was to quantify the effects of the four feeding strategies on growth of calves, vitamin and mineral statuses in blood, and magnitude of acute phase inflammatory protein expression in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure. Calves were assigned randomly to one of four treatment groups (LM-, low milk, not VTM supplemented; LM+, low milk, TMV supplemented; HM-, high milk, not VTM supplemented; HM+, high milk, TMV supplemented) for 15 days. The HM strategy increased average daily gain in calves, but VTM supplementation did not improve growth during the first two weeks of life. Calves fed more milk had greater magnesium and copper concentrations in blood plasma, but treatment groups did not differ in acute phase protein expression.