Handwriting at Different Paces and Sizes With Visual Cues in Persons With Parkinson’s Disease

dc.contributor.author Zaman, Andrew
dc.contributor.author Stegemoller, Elizabeth
dc.contributor.author Stegemoller, Elizabeth
dc.contributor.department Kinesiology
dc.date 2021-09-22T17:51:22.000
dc.date.accessioned 2021-11-20T02:46:15Z
dc.date.available 2021-11-20T02:46:15Z
dc.date.copyright Mon Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2018
dc.date.issued 2018-11-01
dc.description.abstract <p><strong>Background: </strong>Persons with Parkinsons disease (PD) typically have small handwriting, especially when writing faster and/or larger. However, visual cues can help persons with PD increase their handwriting size. This study tested if lined paper would improve handwriting in persons with PD, even when writing faster and or larger. Secondarily, we wanted determine if persons with PD perceived handwriting as stressful, and if perceived stress was associated with writing performance.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>The study included 22 subjects with Parkinsons disease and 11 age-gender-matched controls. Participants completed eight trials (2 times 2 times 2) of printing a P and C, at a comfortable speed and also as fast as possible in two different sizes (1, 2 cm). The participants wrote with a ballpoint pen on lined paper. Bipolar electromyography (EMG) sensors recorded muscle activity from the index finger extensor (extensor digitorum communis (EDC)) and flexor (first dorsal interosseous (FDI)). Participants completed all of the trials for a particular pace (conditions were randomized) before completing all the trials of the other pace (order was counterbalanced).</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Handwriting height was smaller for persons with PD when required to write fast. There was also a trend for patients with PD to write slower and have smaller peak pen accelerations, but these were not statistically significant. Persons with PD found handwriting to be more stressful than healthy older adults did; and perceived stress negatively correlated with letter height and EMG activity.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Our study found that visual cues did not normalize handwriting height in persons with PD when writing large and or fast. Persons with PD find handwriting to be stressful, and stress may negatively influence their handwriting.</p>
dc.description.comments <p>This article is published as Zaman, A.F., Stegemoller, E.L., Handwriting at different Paces and Size with Visual Cues in Persons with Parkinson's Disease. <em>Journal of Neurology Research</em>, 2018; doi: <a href="http://dx.doi.org/10.14740/jnr493w." target="_blank">10.14740/jnr493w.</a></p>
dc.format.mimetype application/pdf
dc.identifier archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/kin_pubs/39/
dc.identifier.articleid 1038
dc.identifier.contextkey 13313327
dc.identifier.s3bucket isulib-bepress-aws-west
dc.identifier.submissionpath kin_pubs/39
dc.identifier.uri https://dr.lib.iastate.edu/handle/20.500.12876/qzoDJPXw
dc.language.iso en
dc.source.bitstream archive/lib.dr.iastate.edu/kin_pubs/39/2018_StegemollerE_Handwriting_at_Different_Paces_and_Sizes_With_Visual_Cues.pdf|||Fri Jan 14 23:55:12 UTC 2022
dc.source.uri 10.14740/jnr493w
dc.subject.disciplines Exercise Science
dc.subject.disciplines Kinesiology
dc.subject.disciplines Motor Control
dc.subject.disciplines Neurology
dc.subject.disciplines Psychology of Movement
dc.subject.keywords Parkinson’s
dc.subject.keywords Handwriting
dc.subject.keywords Cue
dc.subject.keywords Pace
dc.subject.keywords Size
dc.subject.keywords Stress
dc.title Handwriting at Different Paces and Sizes With Visual Cues in Persons With Parkinson’s Disease
dc.type article
dc.type.genre article
dspace.entity.type Publication
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relation.isOrgUnitOfPublication f7b0f2ca-8e43-4084-8a10-75f62e5199dd
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