Hot corrosion behavior of Pt-modified Ni- and Co-based alloys and coatings
High temperature degradation by hot corrosion (650-1000°C) and/or oxidation (>1000°C) can severely reduce the longevity of advanced gas turbine engine components. The protection of high-temperature components against hot corrosion or oxidation is typically conferred by the application of either a diffusion or overlay metallic coating that is able to form a continuous, adherent, and slow-growing oxide scale. There are currently no coatings that provide adequate protection to both hot corrosion and oxidation. Indeed, there is a particular need for such protective coatings because many advanced aero, marine, and industrial gas-turbines operate in both hot corrosion and oxidation regimes in their duty cycle. Recent work at Iowa State University (ISU) has showed that a wide range Pt+Hf-modified gamma'-Ni3Al + gamma-Ni alloy compositions form a very adherent and slow-growing Al 2O3 scale. In fact, the results reported suggest that Pt+Hf-modified gamma' + gamma coatings offer a viable superior alternative to beta-NiAl(Pt)-based coatings. The main thrust of this study was to assess and establish optimum target gamma' + gamma coating compositions for extending the service life of high-temperature gas turbine components exposed to hot corrosion and oxidation conditions. Both high temperature hot-corrosion (HTHC-900°C) and low temperature hot-corrosion (LTHC-705°C) behaviors of the Pt+Hf-modified gamma' + gamma alloys were assessed. The salt used to bring about hot corrosion was Na 2SO4. Quite interestingly, it was found that the HTHC resistance of gamma' + gamma alloys improved with up to about 10 at.% Pt addition, but then decreased significantly with increasing Pt content up to 30 at.% (the maximum level studied); however, under LTHC conditions the resistance of gamma' + gamma alloys improved with increasing Pt content up to 30 at.%. To further improve hot corrosion resistance of Pt+Hf-modified gamma' + gamma alloys, the effects of systematic additions of Cr, Si, and Cr+Si were assessed. The effects pre-oxidation treatments were also studied to further improve the hot corrosion resistance. In addition, high-temperature oxidation behavior of various modified of gamma' + gamma alloys was studied in air at 1150°C under both isothermal and cyclic oxidation conditions. Certain modified versions of gamma' + gamma coating composition(s) exhibited excellent resistance to both hot corrosion and oxidation. Finally, the HTHC and LTHC resistance of novel Pt+Hf-modified gamma' + gamma-based diffusion coatings using a pack cementation process developed at ISU were studied and compared with state-of-the-art commercial coatings. It was found that the Pt+Hf-modified gamma' + gamma coating exhibited superior resistance to both types of hot corrosion with the preoxidation treatment; while, only Pt-modified beta exhibited excellent LTHC resistance with no pre-oxidation treatment. This study also involved evaluating the hot corrosion resistance of various commercially available Pt-modified beta-NiAl diffusion aluminides and CoCrAlY-based overlay coatings for marine gas turbine engine components under both HTHC and LTHC conditions. The Al-Pt-rich beta aluminide exhibited improved resistance to both types of hot corrosion compared to the various Ni-rich beta aluminide and CoCrAlY coatings.