Overcoming Resistance: A Review on Chemotherapy Resistance in Cancer

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Date
2020-01-01
Authors
Fjelstul, Andrea
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Altmetrics
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Research Projects
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Biomedical Sciences
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Abstract

Cancer has been around for as long as history can tell, and it is very prevalent in the United States today, affecting about one-third of people (The American Cancer Society Medical and Editorial Content Team, 2018). Traditionally, chemotherapy has been the method of treatment for cancer, inducing apoptosis and slowing down replication rate. Although successful in the past, cancer is becoming more and more resistant to chemotherapy treatment due to its ever-evolving nature. There are many mechanisms by which cancer evades chemotherapy, but four of the most common methods will be highlighted in this paper. Cancer cells are able to continue past cell cycle checkpoints and avoid apoptosis, which chemotherapy attempts to induce. The tumor microenvironment also plays a vital role in chemotherapy resistance, as does the presence of cancer stem cells. With all of these methods of evasion, there is room for new developments to treat cancer, including the use of CAR T-cell therapy, the use of ctDNA technology for earlier detection of resistance, optimizing doses, scheduling, and combination drugs, and implementing local delivery through ADCs. Although there are seemingly promising future therapeutics, further research must be conducted in order to find more solutions to resistance that specifically target chemoresistance.

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cancer, chemotherapy, chemotherapy resistance, resistance
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