Animal Industry Report: Volume 651, Issue 1
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium Phage Type DT104 contains a region where five major antibiotic genes are located, which has been named Salmonella Genomic Island 1 (SGI1) (Boyd, et al, 2002) and bound by Class I integrons which have been shown to aid in transferring genes horizontally. Antibiotic resistance profiles, Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were used to determine if these genes are present in the serovars.
A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of bred 2-year old second-calf heifers grazing stockpiled forage at two stocking rates and two levels of supplementation during winter. Two 30- acre blocks containing 'Fawn' endophyte-free tall fescuered clover were each divided into four pastures of 6.25 or 8.75 acres. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and N applied at 40 lb/acre to initiate stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, twenty-four Angus-Simmental two-year old heifers, pregnant with their second calf, were allotted by weight and body condition score (BCS) to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.48 or 0.34 cow/acre and eight similar second-calf heifers were allotted to two drylots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay. Corn gluten feed was fed to maintain a mean BCS of 5 or 4.33 (9-point scale) for the high and low supplementation levels, respectively, or when weather prevented grazing. Mean initial forage yield was 3188 lb/acre and decreased 12.2 lb/acre/d in grazed areas of the pasture over 147 d. Mean seasonal concentrations of CP and IVDMD were greater (P < 0.05) in hay than stockpiled forage, while the concentration of ADF was greater (P < 0.05) in stockpiled forage. At the conclusion of winter feeding, animals grazing at the low stocking rate had greater (P < 0.1) BW than those grazing at the high stocking rate, and the BCS of grazing animals was 0.42 lower (P < 0.05) than animals maintained in the drylot. Animals in the drylot were fed 5944 lb/hd of hay. Mean amounts of corn gluten feed fed was 189.6, 19.1, 278.5, 16.9, and 5.2 lb DM/hd for the high stocking rate-high supplementation, high stocking rate-low supplementation, low stocking rate-high supplementation, low stocking rate-low supplementation, and drylot treatments, respectively, but did not significantly differ (P > 0.1).
Fecal Analysis, off-test weights, and ultrasonic measurements were used to determine the response of BioplexTM trace minerals on the fecal mineral excretion (copper Cu, iron Fe, and zinc Zn) and growth and performance traits measured on live pigs (n=528). The use of BioplexTM mineral supplementation on phase fed growfinish pigs could potentially decrease the amount of heavy metal and nutrient excretion without impacting the overall performance of the animal. These organic mineral supplements can ultimately be fed to finishing swine without having a significant effect on percent lean (live or carcass), loin muscle area (LMA), backfat (BF10), average daily gain (ADG), or feed efficiency (FE). The use of BioplexTM trace minerals has the potential to reduce the environmental impact of swine production without any loss of production efficiency to the producer. Future work in the use of BioplexTM trace minerals and other mechanisms to reduce the environmental impact of swine production is warranted.
Cage stocking density for laying hens has been one of the animal welfare issues that face the egg industry. This study investigated the effects of cage stocking density of 54, 60, 66, or 72 in2 per hen on the feeding behavior of grouphoused laying hens. The results revealed no significant difference in daily feeding behaviors of the hens subjected to the stocking density at thermoneutral conditions.
Application of pediocin, as ALTA™ 2341, on the surface of frankfurters before packaging reduced the population of contaminating Listeria monocytogenes and delayed growth of the remaining cells. Therefore, pediocin provides an effective intervention treatment for control of L. monocytogenes on frankfurters and contributes to improved safety of these products for consumers.