Validity of non-invasive methods for body composition measurements in older adults

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Li, Yulong
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Rick L. Sharp
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The Department of Kinesiology seeks to provide an ample knowledge of physical activity and active living to students both within and outside of the program; by providing knowledge of the role of movement and physical activity throughout the lifespan, it seeks to improve the lives of all members of the community. Its options for students enrolled in the department include: Athletic Training; Community and Public Health; Exercise Sciences; Pre-Health Professions; and Physical Education Teacher Licensure. The Department of Physical Education was founded in 1974 from the merger of the Department of Physical Education for Men and the Department of Physical Education for Women. In 1981 its name changed to the Department of Physical Education and Leisure Studies. In 1993 its name changed to the Department of Health and Human Performance. In 2007 its name changed to the Department of Kinesiology. Dates of Existence: 1974-present. Historical Names: Department of Physical Education (1974-1981), Department of Physical Education and Leisure Studies (1981-1993), Department of Health and Human Performance (1993-2007). Related Units: College of Human Sciences (parent college), College of Education (parent college, 1974 - 2005), Department of Physical Education for Women (predecessor) Department of Physical Education for Men
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) in relation to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (i.e. the reference standard). Methods: Sixty-three older adults aged 60-96 years (40 men, 23 women). Body percent fat (%BF) was estimated by BIA, ADP and DXA. Single frequency (50Hz) BIA that measures whole body impedance was used and Kyle's equation was applied to estimate fat-free mass. Paired sample t-test, absolute percent errors and Cohen's d were used to evaluate differences among the 3 different methods. Methods agreement was assessed by Pearson's correlation, regression analysis and Bland-Altman plots. Classification agreement of obesity was evaluated using Kappa statistics. Results: ADP and BIA significantly overestimated %BF relative to DXA by 3.3% and 3.1%, yielding absolute errors of 14.1% and 12.4%, respectively. However, ADP (Cohen's d=0.35) had better agreement with DXA and BIA (Cohen's d=0.40). Regression analysis indicated smaller individual variations of ADP (SEE=3.23) compared to BIA (SEE=4.78). In addition, ADP (Kappa=0.58) showed better obesity classification agreement relative to DXA in comparison with BIA (Kappa = 0.35). However, Bland-Altman plots showed a positive proportional pattern (Slope= 0.24, R2=0.24, p<0.05) of biases in ADP, while no systematic pattern of biases was observed for BIA. A gender difference was also detected, indicating a better agreement in males than females. Conclusion: Given that both BIA and ADP had acceptable agreement with DXA in estimating %BF of older adults, ADP showed relatively better agreement in body composition measurement (i.e. %BF) and obesity classification in comparison to BIA. However, practitioners and/or researchers should be aware of the potential biases when using ADP to estimate %BF in older populations.

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Sun Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2012