The effects of lighting temperature and complexity on hotel guests' perceived servicescape, perceived value, and behavioral intentions
Previous studies have investigated the effects of environmental stimuli, such as music, scent, and lighting. However, complexity has not been widely discussed, particularly in three-dimensional spaces. The current study primarily examines the effects of intended complexity and intended lighting temperature on perceived servicescape, perceived value. A 2 (warm lighting, cool light) × 3 (low complexity, medium complexity, high complexity) between-subject experiment was conducted. Six computer-generated images with the same guestroom floor plan were utilized to represent the six treatment conditions. An online-survey was distributed via Amazon Mechanical Turk. A total of 473 responses were used to test the proposed hypotheses.
The results suggested several important findings. First, the effects of intended complexity were examined by utilizing a consistent lighting temperature. Among the cool light conditions, medium complexity generated the highest perceived servicescape among the three complexity levels, and it also generated a higher perceived value than low complexity. No significant differences in perceived servicescape and perceived value were found among the complexity levels under warm light.
Second, the effects of intended lighting temperature were assessed by utilizing a constant complexity level. Under the low and high complexity levels, warm light generated a higher perceived servicescape than cool light, but no significant difference was found under medium complexity. The differences in perceived value were not significant. Third, no significant interactions between intended complexity and intended lighting temperature were found. Finally, the data showed that perceived servicescape positively influenced perceived value, intention to revisit, and intention to spread positive word-of-mouth. Perceived value positively influenced intention to revisit and intention to spread positive word-of-mouth.
The current study has several major contributions. Theoretically, it expands the knowledge in complexity in three-dimensional spaces. In addition, it captures the inverted U-shape relationship between intended complexity and perceived servicescape. Furthermore, it develops a multi-item measurement for perceived complexity. Practically, it provides valuable information for managers who deal with similar demographics. Hotel managers could choose either to change lighting temperature or to change complexity level to generate high perceived servicescape and/or perceived value, which increases guests’ intention to revisit and intention to spread positive word-of-mouth.