Embedded microcomputer-based force plate system validation when evaluating lameness severity differentiation under an induced synovitis model in lactating dairy cattle

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Warner, R.
Smith, B.C.
Plaengkaeo, S.
Gorden, P.J.
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Elsevier B.V.
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Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal MedicineAgricultural and Biosystems Engineering
Bovine lameness has relatively large negative economic and welfare implications on the U.S. dairy industry. Due to the ramifications, early lameness detection will aid in assisting dairy producers to mitigate downstream effects through early treatment. The objective of this study was to determine the minimum standing time required among 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 10 min time intervals to obtain an accurate weight distribution estimate for each leg when attempting to detect lameness. An embedded microcomputer-based force plate system was developed to measure vertical forces from individual cow limb weight distribution to detect bovine lameness when utilizing an induced synovitis lameness model. The force plate has four quadrants, with each load cell quadrant measuring the force placed on it from a single limb. The force plate recorded weight (kg) every second from each load cell quadrant, after which, a 60 s moving average for weight distribution was calculated. A sequential study design was employed to evaluate non-lame and induced lameness to ensure time requirements were consistent. Prior to induction, the force plate system was used to measure weight distribution every second for 15 min. After lameness induction, additional 15 min increments were recorded every 24 h for seven days. Lameness was induced by injecting the left hind distal interphalangeal joint in three cows with amphotericin B, 12 h prior to the start of the study. Data were analyzed using a linear mixed effect that included the fixed effects of day relative to lameness induction, time period, foot and injected foot. Cow within replicate was included as a random effect. Cumulative minutes were assessed up to 15 min by comparing the least square rolling 60 s cumulative means expressed as a percentage of each animal’s BW percentage placed on each leg for 2-, 3-, 4-, 5-, and 10 min intervals. Results indicate that the minimum time needed for accurate lameness detection in cows was 2 min.
This article is published as Warner, R., B. C. Smith, K. J. Stalder, L. A. Karriker, S. Plaengkaeo, B. C. Ramirez, and P. J. Gorden. "Embedded microcomputer-based force plate system validation when evaluating lameness severity differentiation under an induced synovitis model in lactating dairy cattle." Animal 15, no. 12 (2021): 100415. DOI: 10.1016/j.animal.2021.100415. Copyright 2021 The Author(s). Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0). Posted with permission.
Amphotericin B, Bovine, Lameness Detection, Non-invasive, Welfare