Propagation time for zero forcing on a graph

Hogben, Leslie
Huynh, My
Hogben, Leslie
Kingsley, Nicole
Meyer, Sarah
Walker, Shanise
Young, Michael
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Zero forcing (also called graph infection) on a simple, undirected graph G is based on the color-change rule: if each vertex of G is colored either white or black, and vertex v is a black vertex with only one white neighbor w, then change the color of w to black. A minimum zero forcing set is a set of black vertices of minimum cardinality that can color the entire graph black using the color change rule. The propagation time of a zero forcing set B of graph G is the minimum number of steps that it takes to force all the vertices of G black, starting with the vertices in B black and performing independent forces simultaneously. The minimum and maximum propagation times of a graph are taken over all minimum zero forcing sets of the graph. It is shown that a connected graph of order at least two has more than one minimum zero forcing set realizing minimum propagation time. Graphs G having extreme minimum propagation times |G|−1, |G|−2, and 0 are characterized, and results regarding graphs having minimum propagation time 1 are established. It is shown that the diameter is an upper bound for maximum propagation time for a tree, but in general propagation time and diameter of a graph are not comparable.

<p>This is a manuscript of an article from <em>Discrete Applied Mathematics</em> 26 (2012): 1994, doi:<a href="" target="_blank">10.1016/j.dam.2012.04.003</a>. Posted with permission.</p>
Zero forcing number, Propagation time, Graph