Domain structure-dielectric property relationship in lead-free (1−x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3xBaTiO3 ceramics
The domain morphology and crystal structure of (1−x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3xBaTiO3 lead-free piezoelectric ceramics were systematically studied with transmission electron microscopy for compositions x=0.04through 0.11. It was found that the ceramics with compositions x<0.06 display a R3csymmetry with ferroelectric domains of ∼100 nm forming complex structures at room temperature. Only nanodomains with faint contrast were observed in the compositions of 0.07≤x≤0.09. The presence of weak 1/2 (ooe)superlattice diffraction spots and absence of 1/2 (ooo) ones (o stands for odd and e stands for even miller indices) seem to suggest a P4bm symmetry at room temperature. The morphotropic phase boundary composition x=0.06 showed mixed R3c and P4bm phases. Large lamellar ferroelectric domains with P4mm symmetry were found to dominate in the ceramic of x=0.11. The observed domain structure correlates extremely well with the frequency dispersion of dielectric constant at room temperature and a new concept “relaxor antiferroelectric” was proposed to describe the dielectric behavior of compositions 0.07≤x≤0.09. These results are summarized in a phase diagram for unpoled ceramics in the (1−x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3xBaTiO3binary solid solution system.
The following article appeared in Journal of Applied Physics 108 (2010): 104105 and may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3514093.