Evolving morphotropic phase boundary in lead-free (Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3–BaTiO3 piezoceramics
The correlation between structure and electrical properties of lead-free (1−x)(Bi1/2Na1/2)TiO3–xBaTiO3 (BNT-100xBT) polycrystalline piezoceramics was investigated systematically by in situ synchrotron diffraction technique, combined with electrical property characterization. It was found that the morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) between a rhombohedral and a tetragonal phase evolved into a morphotropic phase region with electric field. In the unpoled material, the MPB was positioned at the transition from space group R3m to P4mm (BNT-11BT) with optimized permittivity throughout a broad single-phase R3m composition regime. Upon poling, a range of compositions from BNT-6BT to BNT-11BT became two-phase mixture, and maximum piezoelectric coefficient was observed in BNT-7BT. It was shown that optimized electrical properties are related primarily to the capacity for domain texturing and not to phase coexistence.
The following article appeared in Journal of Applied Physics 109 (2011): 014110 and may be found at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3530737.