Tourists' shopping behavior
This study was intended to expand understanding of tourists' shopping behavior for craft souvenirs by integrating previous studies and research frameworks relative to tourist consumer shopping behavior in tourism and marketing literature. More specifically, the objectives were to: (1) identify research variables that are involved in tourist consumers' shopping experiences, (2) propose a model that incorporates those variables, and (3) empirically test the proposed model using a sample of adult individuals who shop for crafts during their travels;A self-administered mail questionnaire booklet and a single page written description of two craft retail stores were mailed to a sample of 750 adults who resided in upper mid-western states in the U.S. and who requested travel information from the Iowa Division of Tourism. A total of 223 completed questionnaires were returned for a response rate of 36.0%. Of these, 182 (29.4%) were identified as usable and were included in the analyses. Path analysis was used to examine the relationships among beliefs about authenticity of crafts, beliefs about craft product features, shopping value, past travel experiences, attitude toward shopping experiences, subjective norm of shopping experiences, and intention to shop/purchase at venues;Results provided evidence in support of the spectator/recreational and socially-engaged approaches to tourism proposed by the researcher. Findings also indicated that a framework based on Fishbein and Azjen's (1975) theory of reasoned 2 action was successful in explaining the relationships among attitude, subjective norm, and behavioral intention in a tourism shopping context. Results also suggested that beliefs about authenticity of crafts, beliefs about craft product features, shopping value, and past travel experiences positively influenced attitude toward shopping experiences, which in turn, impacted shop/purchase intention. Comparison of the models showed that the proposed model had a reasonably good fit to the research data. Implications of the study and recommendations for future research were provided.