Necessary competencies and learning experiences for hospitality educators: a Delphi study
The purposes of this study were (1) to identify a list of knowledge and skill competencies that are needed by an effective hospitality management educator, and (2) to identify a list of learning experiences that would be appropriate for acquiring the competencies;Both purposes were achieved by administering three successive Delphi questionnaires to a panel of experts consisting of 100 hospitality educators who were nominated most frequently, according to specified criteria, by a national random sample of 100 hospitality educators;In the first questionnaire, (Round I), panelists were asked to generate competencies and learning experiences. In the second questionnaire, (Round II), panelists received the consolidated Round I responses and were asked to rate the competencies (knowledge and skills) and learning experiences as to importance and appropriateness. In the third questionnaire, (Round III), the panelists were to evaluate their responses to the groups' modal responses. The fact that the Round III responses represented the converged opinions of the Delphi group was verified by means of the t test for correlated data by which the difference between the variance for each statement between each Round was tested. Of the 100 hospitality educators invited to participate in the study 62 accepted the invitation. Of these 62 panelists, 56 (90.3 percent) completed the study through Round III;The panel members generated 90 competencies and learning experiences. Of these 90 statements, 14 knowledge competencies, seven skill competencies, and six learning experiences were identified as necessary competencies and learning experiences by meeting the established criteria in Round III. The statements under the three headings were rank ordered on the basis of the modal percentage after Round III.