Epidemiology, geographical distribution, and economic consequences of swine zoonoses: a narrative review

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Khan, Salah
Atanasova, Kalina
Krueger, Whitney
Ramirez, Alejandro
Gray, Gregory
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Ramirez, Alejandro
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Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
The mission of VDPAM is to educate current and future food animal veterinarians, population medicine scientists and stakeholders by increasing our understanding of issues that impact the health, productivity and well-being of food and fiber producing animals; developing innovative solutions for animal health and food safety; and providing the highest quality, most comprehensive clinical practice and diagnostic services. Our department is made up of highly trained specialists who span a wide range of veterinary disciplines and species interests. We have faculty of all ranks with expertise in diagnostics, medicine, surgery, pathology, microbiology, epidemiology, public health, and production medicine. Most have earned certification from specialty boards. Dozens of additional scientists and laboratory technicians support the research and service components of our department.
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Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine

We sought to review the epidemiology, international geographical distribution, and economic consequences of selected swine zoonoses. We performed literature searches in two stages. First, we identified the zoonotic pathogens associated with swine. Second, we identified specific swine-associated zoonotic pathogen reports for those pathogens from January 1980 to October 2012. Swine-associated emerging diseases were more prevalent in the countries of North America, South America, and Europe. Multiple factors were associated with the increase of swine zoonoses in humans including: the density of pigs, poor water sources and environmental conditions for swine husbandry, the transmissibility of the pathogen, occupational exposure to pigs, poor human sanitation, and personal hygiene. Swine zoonoses often lead to severe economic consequences related to the threat of novel pathogens to humans, drop in public demand for pork, forced culling of swine herds, and international trade sanctions. Due to the complexity of swine-associated pathogen ecology, designing effective interventions for early detection of disease, their prevention, and mitigation requires an interdisciplinary collaborative ‘‘One Health’’ approach from veterinarians, environmental and public health professionals, and the swine industry.


This article is from Emerging Microbes and Infections 2 (2013): e92, doi:10.1038/emi.2013.87. Posted with permission.

Tue Jan 01 00:00:00 UTC 2013