Immunity to Bovine Herpesvirus 1: II. Adaptive Immunity and Vaccinology
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Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1) infection is widespread and causes a variety of diseases. Although similar in many respects to the human immune response to human herpesvirus 1, the differences in the bovine virus proteins, immune system components and strategies, physiology, and lifestyle mean the bovine immune response to BHV-1 is unique. The innate immune system initially responds to infection, and primes a balanced adaptive immune response. Cell-mediated immunity, including cytotoxic T lymphocyte killing of infected cells, is critical to recovery from infection. Humoral immunity, including neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity, is important to prevention or control of (re-)infection. BHV-1 immune evasion strategies include suppression of major histocompatibility complex presentation of viral antigen, helper T-cell killing, and latency. Immune suppression caused by the virus potentiates secondary infections and contributes to the costly bovine respiratory disease complex. Vaccination against BHV-1 is widely practiced. The many vaccines reported include replicating and non-replicating, conventional and genetically engineered, as well as marker and non-marker preparations. Current development focuses on delivery of major BHV-1 glycoproteins to elicit a balanced, protective immune response, while excluding serologic markers and virulence or other undesirable factors. In North America, vaccines are used to prevent or reduce clinical signs, whereas in some European Union countries marker vaccines have been employed in the eradication of BHV-1 disease.
This article is from Animal Health Research Reviews 14 (2013): 103, doi:10.1017/S1466252313000054 .