Impact of PRRSV infection and dietary soybean meal on ileal amino acid digestibility and endogenous amino acid losses in growing pigs
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a significant disease in the swine industry, and increasing soybean meal (SBM) consumption during this disease challenge may improve performance. Our objectives were to determine the impact of SBM level on apparent total tract (ATTD) and ileal (AID) digestibility during PRRSV infection and to determine ileal basal endogenous losses (BEL) during PRRSV infection. Forty PRRSV negative gilts were fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial with high and low SBM (HSBM, 29% vs. LSBM, 10%), with and without PRRSV (n = 6/treatment). The remaining pigs (n = 8/challenge status) were fed a N-free diet. Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. On day post inoculation (dpi) 0, at 47.7 ± 0.57 kg BW, 20 pigs were inoculated with live PRRSV; 20 control pigs were sham inoculated. Infection was confirmed by serum PCR. Feces were collected at dpi 5 to 6 and dpi 16 to 17, and ileal digesta collected at dpi 7 to 8 and dpi 18 to 19. Feed, feces, and digesta were analyzed for DM, N, and GE. Digesta and feed were analyzed for AA. Data were analyzed in a 2 × 2 + 2 factorial design to determine main effects of diet and PRRSV and their interaction. Data from N-free fed pigs were analyzed separately to determine BEL and hindgut disappearance due to PRRSV infection. All control pigs remained PRRSV negative. There were no interactions for AID of AA; however, HSBM reduced DM, GE, Lys, and Met AID and increased Arg and Gly AID during both collection periods (P < 0.05). At dpi 7 to 8 only, PRRSV reduced DM and GE AID (P < 0.05). At 7 to 8 dpi, BEL of Arg, Ala, and Pro were reduced (P < 0.05) due to PRRSV by 64%, 39%, and 94%, respectively. At dpi 18 to 19, BEL of Thr tended (P = 0.06) to be increased in PRRSV-infected pigs; however, no other differences were observed. Pigs fed LSBM had increased Lys, Met, Thr, Trp, and Pro standardized ileal digestibility (SID), primarily at 7 to 8 dpi. At 7 to 8 dpi, PRRSV reduced Arg, Gly, and Pro SID (P < 0.01), and SID Pro continued to be reduced by 17% at dpi 18 to 19. Compared with HSBM pigs, LSBM reduced hindgut disappearance of DM and GE at dpi 5 to 8 and dpi 16 to 19, while N disappearance was reduced at dpi 5 to 8. There were no differences between control and PRRSV N-free fed pigs. Altogether, SBM inclusion impacts SID of AA and hindgut disappearance of nutrients, regardless of PRRSV. In contrast, there is minimal impact of PRRSV on BEL, and therefore, SID of most AA are not different.
This article is published as Schweer, Wesley P., John F. Patience, Eric R. Burrough, Brian J. Kerr, and Nicholas K. Gabler. "Impact of PRRSV infection and dietary soybean meal on ileal amino acid digestibility and endogenous amino acid losses in growing pigs." Journal of animal science 96, no. 5 (2018): 1846-1859. doi:10.1093/jas/sky093.