Association of wild-type PRRSV detection patterns with mortality of MLV-vaccinated growing pig groups
PRRS is a viral disease characterized by increasing reproduction losses in breeding herds and worsening performance of growing pigs, which leads to a considerable economic impact.
A better understanding of the differences in the infection patterns of the virus in growing pig batches would help to develop cost-effective surveillance methods and disease control and elimination programs. Therefore, field studies documenting growing pig productivity according to the patterns of wild-type-PRRSV (wt-PRRSV) detection in the field are needed. This study was conducted with the objectives to (1) characterize patterns of wt-PRRSV-1 and wt-PRRSV-2 RNA detection over time in modified-live virus (MLV)-vaccinated batches of growing pigs raised in pig-dense regions of the USA; (2) compare wean-to-finish mortality among batches of growing pigs characterized with the different patterns of wt-PRRSV-1 and wt-PRRSV-2 detection; and (3) compare wean-to-finish mortality among batches of growing pigs characterized with the different patterns of wt-PRRSV-2 detection and vaccinated with two different doses of PRRS MLV vaccine.
Eighty-one batches of growing pigs were originated from PRRSV positive-stable and unstable sow farms and vaccinated with two different doses of PRRS MLV vaccine. All batches were monitored for wt-PRRSV by testing six oral fluids every three weeks from weaning to marketing. Diagnostics were conducted to detect wt-PRRSV-1 and wt-PRRSV-2 by RT-qPCR testing and ORF-5 region sequencing. K-means clustering analysis was applied to identify batches sharing similar patterns of wt-PRRSV detection over time. Regression analyses were used to compare mortality among batches of growing pigs characterized with different patterns of wt-PRRSV detection over time.
Thirty-eight percent of batches were detected with wt-PRRSV-1 during the growth phase, with three different patterns of detection. Detection of wt-PRRSV-1 was not associated with significant increase on mortality. Ninety-one percent of batches were detected with wt-PRRSV-2 during the growth phase, with four different patterns of detection. Batches originated from PRRSV positive-unstable farms had highest mortality rate (p < 0.0001) and were characterized as Unstable wt-PRRSV-2 detection pattern. Batches characterized with Early wt-PRRSV-2 detection pattern had higher mortality than batches characterized by Mid, Late and No wt-PRRSV-2 detection during the growth phase (p < 0.0001). Batches with Mid wt-PRRSV-2 detection had higher mortality than batches characterized with Late wt-PRRSV-2 detection (p < 0.0124). Mortality rate of batches characterized with Unstable and Early wt-PRRSV-2 detection patterns was lower when pigs were vaccinated with two doses of PRRS MLV vaccine, compared to batches that received only one dose.
Results presented in this study suggested that early wt-PRRSV exposure on pig populations was associated with higher wean-to-finish mortality. Additionally, results suggested that vaccination with two PRRS MLV doses was associated with lower mortality rate, when growing pig populations had early wt-PRRSV exposure.
This is a manuscript of an article published as Moura, Cesar AA, Reid Philips, Gustavo S. Silva, Alejandro Ramirez, Phillip C. Gauger, Derald J. Holtkamp, and Daniel CL Linhares. "Association of wild-type PRRSV detection patterns with mortality of MLV-vaccinated growing pig groups." Preventive Veterinary Medicine (2021): 105270. DOI: 10.1016/j.prevetmed.2021.105270. Posted with permission.