Bulletin: Volume 2, Issue 13
The observations of the past thirty years on the prairies west of Lake Michigan sustain the proposition that the varieties of the orchard fruits vary in hardiness of fruit buds and blossoms quite as much as they do in relative hardiness of tree. The proposition can also be sustained that the typical Ironclad tree has hardier fruit buds and blossoms than the one that poorly withstands our trying changes of summer and winter. With the apple this is well illustrated in watching the behavior of such Ironclads as the Blushed Calville, Anisette, Duchess, Borovinca, Hibernal, Recumbent, Anis, Ostrokoff, and many others from the steppes of east Europe.
During our trying summers they retain clean, healthy foliage and in early autumn ripen their leaves and points of growth prior to the advent of severe frosts as do our native forest trees.
For the purpose of learning the comparative value of Iowa feeding stuffs for milk, an experiment has been conducted with eight cows during a space of sixty days. Upon taking possession of the Station and Farm the present management found corn fodder, corn ensilage, cane ensilage and roots, at their disposal, and resolved to begin a system of investigation that is intended to embrace everything grown on Iowa soils that can be profitably turned into milk and meats. We desired to study the farm animals with a view to learning their value, make tests of the yield of all the cows as regards quality and quantity of milk, so as to select, and reject, with intelligence, and put the herds upon the highest plane of usefulness. The Station and Farm had about thirty cows giving milk, and from these we selected eight whose milking seasons would not terminate during the time they would be under trial. Of the six distinct breeds on the grounds, we selected two thoroughbred Holsteins, Nos. 114 and 115, a grade Holstein No. 64, a thoroughbred Short horn No. 219, a grade Ayrshire and short horn No. 40, a grade Jersey No. 38, and two grade Short horns Nos. 3 and 37. The numbers are the names of the cows, all grades being numbered between one and one hundred, Holsteins between one hundred and two hundred, Short horns between two hundred and three hun-hundred, and, as we will use some of these cows in other experiments for future reports, we retain the numbers by which all the farm workmen know them.
There is probably no greater loss from insects in the state of Iowa than that which occurs in meadows and pastures and while the loss is not so conspicuous as in some crops because of its insidious nature and the fact that it is only occasionally that the whole or a large part is taken, it is only necessary to note that the half or probably more of the growth of grasses is devoured by insects regularly to realize that there is here an enormous drain on this crop.
This loss becomes conspicuous in dry years or when the insects greatly multiply and it is generally believed that in such years some conditions favor the great multiplication of insects, but this is largely due to the fact that at such times their work becomes apparent, while in ordinary seasons the natural growth of the grass is able to keep up and the plants appear fresh in spite of the drain they sustain. It is easy to see, however, that they must support this horde of insects and if the insects were not there this would go to making hay or to feeding stock in pasture.
There is no fact better known to the sanitarian, than that one of the chief sources of danger to life and health, is the contamination of drinking water. I f a malignant form of fever makes its appearance in a family, which cannot b$ explained by the history of actual exposure to contagium, the water supply always comes in for an early and liberal share of attention. The instances are sufficiently numerous in which the investigator is enabled to trace the malady to this source, to warrant every reasonable precaution in procuring a pure water supply.