Resource Conservation Technologies

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Bakhsh, Allah
Kanwar, Rameshwar
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The world population is likely to increase to 9 billion in 2050. This will require increasing global food production to almost 100% by 2050 to meet the food security needs of an increasing population. To meet the demand for more food supplies, conservation of land and water resources is indispensable. Worldwide, land and water resources are not only shrinking but also degrading fast and therefore, are expected to put additional stresses on both natural resources. Whereas, annual water availability per capita in developing countries like Pakistan has already declined from 5600 m3 in 1950s to less than 1000 m3 in 2014. This situation has placed Pakistan in the list of water deficit countries, adversely affecting its economic growth and wellbeing of the citizens mainly due to water shortage for industry and agriculture. Adequate water availability is a pre-requisite for ensuring food security because on the average, it has an annual rainfall of 240 mm against average annual evapotranspiration of about 2000 mm. Moreover, the country receives about 70% of its annual rainfall during the monsoon season of 70-90 days, whereas water is required throughout the year for growing crops. To cope with increasing food and water requirements of the growing population in the country, there is a crucial need of conservation of land and water resources. This chapter highlights the basic principles of resource conservation technologies including watercourse improvement, laser land leveling, zero tillage, improved irrigation methods, terracing, salinity, skimming well technology, rainwater harvesting and groundwater.


This book chapter is published as Bakhsh, Allah, and Rameshwar S. Kanwar. "Resource Conservation Technologies." Chapter 15 in: Applied Irrigation Engineering. Editors: Allah Bakhsh and Muhammad Rafiq Choudhary. Managing editors: Iqrar Ahmad Khan and Muhammad Farooq. Published by University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. (2017): 329-350.

Food Security, Resource Conservation, Watercourse Improvement, Laser Land Leveling, Rainwater Harvesting, Zero Tillage, Skimming Well