Characterization of the Humoral Immune Response to Porcine Epidemic Diarrhea Virus Infection under Experimental and Field Conditions Using an AlphaLISA Platform

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Kimpston-Burkgren, Kay
Mora-Díaz, Juan Carlos
Roby, Philippe
Bjustrom-Kraft, Jordan
Main, Rodger
Bosse, Roger
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Giménez-Lirola, Luis
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Veterinary Diagnostic and Production Animal Medicine
The mission of VDPAM is to educate current and future food animal veterinarians, population medicine scientists and stakeholders by increasing our understanding of issues that impact the health, productivity and well-being of food and fiber producing animals; developing innovative solutions for animal health and food safety; and providing the highest quality, most comprehensive clinical practice and diagnostic services. Our department is made up of highly trained specialists who span a wide range of veterinary disciplines and species interests. We have faculty of all ranks with expertise in diagnostics, medicine, surgery, pathology, microbiology, epidemiology, public health, and production medicine. Most have earned certification from specialty boards. Dozens of additional scientists and laboratory technicians support the research and service components of our department.
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Coronavirus infections are a continuous threat raised time and again. With the recent emergence of novel virulent strains, these viruses can have a large impact on human and animal health. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) is considered to be a reemerging pig disease caused by the enteropathogenic alphacoronavirus PED virus (PEDV). In the absence of effective vaccines, infection prevention and control through diagnostic testing and quarantine are critical. Early detection and differential diagnosis of PEDV infections increase the chance of successful control of the disease. Therefore, there is a continuous need for development of reduced assay-step protocols, no-wash, high-throughput immunoassays. This study described the characterization of the humoral immune response against PEDV under experimental and field conditions using a rapid, sensitive, luminescent proximity homogenous assay (AlphaLISA). PEDV IgG and IgA antibodies were developed toward the beginning of the second week of infection. PEDV IgG antibodies were detected for at least 16 weeks post-exposure. Remarkably, the serum IgA levels remained high and relatively stable throughout the study, lasting longer than the serum IgG response. Overall, AlphaLISA allows the detection and characterization of pathogen-specific antibodies with new speed, sensitivity, and simplicity of use. Particularly, the bridge assay constitutes a rapid diagnostic that substantially improves upon the “time to result” metric of currently available immunoassays.
This article is published as Kimpston-Burkgren, Kay, Juan Carlos Mora-Díaz, Philippe Roby, Jordan Bjustrom-Kraft, Rodger Main, Roger Bosse, and Luis Gabriel Giménez-Lirola. "Characterization of the humoral immune response to porcine epidemic diarrhea virus infection under experimental and field conditions using an AlphaLISA platform." Pathogens 9, no. 3 (2020): 233. DOI: 10.3390/pathogens9030233. Copyright 2020 by the authors. Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0). Posted with permission.